Elizabeth Rega, PhD


2012  Elizabeth A. Rega, Ken Noriega, Stuart S. Sumida, Adam Huttenlocker, Andrew Lee, and Brett Kennedy.  Healed Fractures in the Neural Spines of an Associated Skeleton of Dimetrodon: Implications for Dorsal Sail Morphology and Function. Fieldiana Life and Earth Sciences, The Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago. 2012. Vol.5 Ch. 9  pg.(s) 104–111

2012 Huttenlocker, A. K. and E. Rega. The paleobiology and bone microstructure of pelycosaurian-grade synapsids. Pp. 90-119 in A. Chinsamy-Turan (ed.) The Forerunners of Mammals: Radiation, Histology and Biology. Indiana University Press.


2012 Rega, E. “Disease in Dinosaurs” In Brett-Surman, M.K., Holtz, T.R., and Farlow, J.O., eds. The Complete Dinosaur, 2nd ed. Indiana University Press. pp 666-711. Free Preview of Chapter Here!!! http://books.google.com


2010 Huttenlocker, A. K., Rega, E., & Sumida, S. S. Comparative Anatomy and Osteohistology of Hyperelongate Neural Spines in the Sphenacodontids Sphenacodon and Dimetrodon (Amniota: Synapsida). J Morphol, 271(12), 1407-1421. doi: Doi 10.1002/Jmor.108762010

2008 Rega, E. What Are Appropriate Extant Model Organisms for Dinosaur Disease? Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 28(3), 130a-130a.
2007 Rega, E. “Dinosaur Paleopathology”. In Dr. Thomas R. Holtz, Jr., 2007, Dinosaurs: The Most Complete, Up-to-Date Encyclopedia for Dinosaur Lovers of All Ages. Random House Digital, Inc. p. 323-323. 423 pages. (Juvenile nonfiction)
2007 Rega, E., Holmes, R., Tirabasso, A. “Habitual Locomotor Behavior Inferred from Manual Pathology in Two Late Cretaceous Chasmosaurine Ceratopsid Dinosaurs, Chasmosaurus irvinensis (CMN 41357) and Chasmosaurus belli (ROM 843)” in Ryan, Chinnery, Eberth, Rairick, eds. New Perspectives on Horned Dinosaurs: The Royal Tyrrell Museum Ceratopsian Symposium (Life of the Past). Ch. 24.
Manual Pathology
2007 Huttenlocker, A., Rega, E., & Sumida, S. New histological investigations of hyperelongate neural spines in eupelycosaurs (Amniota : Synapsida) and the affinities of Lupeosaurus kayi. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 27(3), 93a-
2007 Madalena, K., Sumida, S., Zeigler, K., & Rega, E. A new record of the Early Permian pelycosurian-grade synapsid Dimetrodon (Eupelycosauria : Sphenacodontidae) from the lower cutler group (Early Permian) of Jemez Pueblo, north-central New Mexico. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 27(3), 110a-110a.

2006 Craig Scott Kuehn and Elizabeth Rega. Turning anatomy on its head; a lab-first approach to anatomy. Faseb Journal, 20(5), A875-A875. http://www.fasebj.org/cgi/content/meeting_abstract/20/5/A875?sid=c4db475f-ad95-4d86-8ea9-dd2f64c0a378

1996 Stephany Leach & Elizabeth Rega, “Interim Report on the Human Skeletal Material Recovered from the 1995 Tell Es Sa’idyieh Excavations, Areas BB and DD,” Palestine Exploration Quarterly 128 (1996): 131-138.
2006 – Rega, E.A. & R. Holmes “Manual pathology indicative of locomotor behavior in two chasmosaurine ceratopid dinosaurs” . Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 26 (3, Suppl.), p. 114A.2006 – Rega, E.A. S.S. Sumida, K. Noriega, A. Lee. Histological analysis of traumatic injury to multiple neural spines of an associated skeleton of Dimetrodon: Implications for healing response, dorsal sail morphology and age-at-death in a Lower Permian synapsid”. Integrative And Comparative Biology2005 – Rega, E.A. S.S. Sumida, K. Noriega, C. Pell, A. Lee Evidence-based paleopathology I: ontogenetic and functional implications of dorsal sails in Dimetrodon. “. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 25 (3, Suppl.), p. 103A.2005 – S.S. Sumida, E. A. Rega, K. Noriega Evidence-based paleopathology II: Impact on phylogenetic analysis of the genus Dimetrodon. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 25 (3, Suppl.), p. 120A.2004 – Rega, E.A. Noriega, K. Sumida, S. & Lee, A.”Histological analysis of traumatic injury to multiple neural spines of an associated skeleton of Dimetrodon: Implications for healing response, dorsal sail morphology and age-at-death in a Lower Permian synapsid; Integrative And Comparative Biology, vol 44(6) P. 628.2003 – Rega, E. A., Hanna, R. R., and Wolff, E. D. S. “A new tool for paleopathological analysis; development of a description-based classification system for pathological bones”. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 23 (3, Suppl.), p. 89.2002 – Noriega, K. C., Rega, E. A., and Sumida, S. S. “Indirect evidence of sail presence from healed spinous process fractures in several Dimetrodon specimens”. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 22 (3, Suppl.), p. 92.

2002 – E.A. Rega and C. Brochu “Palaeopathology in a mature specimen of tyrannosaurus rex” First International Palaeontological Congress Abstracts No. 68. Ed. G. Brock & J. Talent. Geological Society of North America.

2002 – Rega, E. A., Wideman, N. K., and Brochu, C. A. “Paleopathology of amniote specimens from the late Paleozoic and Mesozoic of North America; comparison of gross morphological and historical analyses.” Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 22 (3, Suppl.), p. 98.

2001 – *K. Noriega and E. Rega. “Heretofore undocumented variation of an intrinsic hand muscle in a juvenile baboon”. American Zoologist (abstract). vol 41(6) pp.

2001 – Rega, E.A. and C. A. Brochu “Paleopathology of a mature Tyrannosaurus rex” Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Volume 21, Supplement to No. 3, 22 August 2001, p. 92A (abstract).

2001 – Rega, E. A., and Noriega, K. “Indirect evidence of sail presence from a healed spinous process fracture in Dimetrodon”. PaleoBios, 21 (2, Suppl.), p. 108.

2001 – Rega, E.A. and C. Brochu “Evidence of thoracic breathing in Tyrannosaurus rex, based upon recent anatomical and pathological evidence from “Sue.” Journal of Morphology (abstract).

1999 – *Rega, E. A., J. Michaelson and L. TenEyck.. “Analysis of commingled skeletal remains from a pre-contact cave site in the Jackson’s Bay Cave series, Jamaica .” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Supplement 26. (abstract)

1999 – *Gebhardt, G., L. Teneyck and E.A. Rega, “A Java program for the calculation of minimum number of individuals from commingled and fragmented skeletal samples”. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Supplement 26. (abstract)

2000 – Rega, E.A. “The “dynamic digital human” in research, entertainment and education” .American Zoologist Vol 40(6)p. 1185.

1998 – *Tometich, J., J. Bernstein, and E. A. Rega. “Articulation of a saber tooth cat in leaping position with completely hidden hardware”. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology Vol. 18, No. 3, p. 82A. (abstract)

1998 – *Rega, E.A. “Anatomy in Animation: Sexual Dimorphism in the creation of realistic animatied human characters” American Zoologist 38 (5): 81.

1997 – *Rega, E. A. and G. Parker “Primate 1st Metacarpal Morphological Variability: Implications for Fossil Hominids”, Journal of Morphology 232 (abstract).

1997 – *Albright, G.M. and E. A. Rega. “A survey of the late Palaeozoic fish fauna of Utah “, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, volume 17, supplement to No. 3, p. 28A. (abstract).

* Indicates publication with student.


– A team of Western University of Health Sciences faculty, staff and students created what could be the “world’s largest microscope slide” of a Tyrannosaurus rex femur for the recently opened Dinosaur Hall at the Natural History Museum(NHM) of Los Angeles County.
Did a throat infection take down T.rex? An interview with Elizabeth Rega, Ph.D. http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/80beats/2009/09/30/did-a-throat-infection-take-down-sue-the-famous-t-rex/
Diane E. McClure, DVM, also of WesternU, assists with the identification of an appropriate model for comparison for disease in dinosaurs.
Dinosaurs, the Media, and Andy Warhol, by Keith Thompson, In American Scientist (www.americanscientist.org)
Even Might T.rex Could Not Escape merciless progress of scientific knowledge
Animation & Anatomy Presentations
Baton Rouge Red Stick Toon Fest
Presentation on Character Anatomy for Animators, UNIVERSITY OF TEESSIDE   MIDDLESBROUGH, February 2008
Tarzan (animated film)
Dr. Elizabeth Rega, juror, anatomist, anthropologist, medical school professor at Western University and science advisor to Walt Disney and other movie companies addressed the Sci-An Forum as well. Dr. Rega’s research informs movie animators where correct attention to anthropological and anatomic detail can add as much truth to an animated movie as can the script and costumes.
2000. Rega, E., The Gendering of Children in the Early Bronze Age Cemetery at Mokrin. In: Moira, D., Hurcome, L., eds. Gender and Material Culture in Archaeological Perspective (Studies in Gender and Material Culture). Palgrave Macmillan. 238 (12).
LA Times
National Geographic
Although “a tumor is a distinct possibility, it is by no means a certain diagnosis,”
HaoHan Simulation Dinosaur Art Website
“The California Western University dinosaur anatomy expert Elizabeth ricca ( Elizabeth Rega ) also believe that the Tyrannosaurus Rex fossil mandible on this hole is formed by disease, but the Swiss card thinks, cause the disease was caused by actinomycosis. Wolf argued, actinomycosis of the damage in the human body are generally caused by pus. But the birds themselves contain fiber protein biological immune, generally does not produce pus. The same reason, dinosaur, and birds, not easy to produce pus.”
Reading Eagle, November 1, 2001
Reading Eagle Company • 345 Penn Street • Reading • PA • 19603
Also in Yahoo, (via Marketwire)
2006 Northrup Educator of the Year, Student Osteopathic Medical Association
See website of co-author Adam Huttenlocker for Dimetrodon and Bone Histology:

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