Pathological Conditions and Related Topics

from Tanke Rothschild 1999 Dinosores

 

INDEX TWO:

PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS AND

RELATED TOPICS

Notes: Within each of the following headings, the citations are arranged chronologically and then alphabetically. The following detailed index is quite extensive. For example, the hypothetical statement “Intraspecific fighting is inferred from fossilized material recovered from horned dinosaur bonebeds that show broken and healed jaws, puncture injuries to the frill and bone infections” would be indexed under INTRASPECIFIC FIGHTING, MASS MORTALITY, FRACTURES, PUNCTURES and OSTEOMYELITIS. As a result, citations of larger works or smaller detailed reports (especially those including literature reviews) will reappear frequently throughout this index.

ABSCESSES (NON-ORAL):

In: proximal humerus of Dilophosaurus: Welles, 1984; Rothschild, 1997.

:humerus of Upper Cretaceous unspeciated hadrosaur, Alberta, Canada following severe transverse fracture: Moodie, 1923a.

:Camptosaurus ilium; Allosaurus phalanx; Troodon parietal: Rothschild, 1997.

:mention only (popular); Currie and Koppelhus, 1996.

ACROMEGALY: Nopcsa, 1917; Anonymous, 1934a,b,c (all Late Cretaceous ceratopsians); Benton, 1990.

AMPUTATIONS:

In: Jurassic Eubrontes footprint showing missing toe: Abel, 1935.

:caudal neural spine of Late Cretaceous hadrosaur Edmontosaurus possibly incurred during a failed predation attempt by Tyrannosaurus: Carpenter, 1988a.

:tail tip (approx. 30 cm) of Late Cretaceous unspeciated hadrosaur associated with fusion of remaining distal caudal vertebrae, Alberta, Canada: Langston, 1961.

:“digit loss” as exemplified in dinosaur footprints: Thulborn, 1990; Tanke and Rothschild, 1997.

:Upper Jurassic Allosaurus pedal phalanx suggestive of traumatic amputation and associated infection: Petersen, Isakson and Madsen, 1972.

:loss of distal portion of orbital horncore in two Late Cretaceous Triceratops specimens: Moodie, 1923a.

:loss of distal horncore, Triceratops: Hatcher, Marsh and Lull, 1908.

ANAEROBES: Anonymous, 1975.

ANKYLOSING SPONDYLOSIS:

In: caudal vertebrae of Upper Jurassic sauropod Diplodocus [actually DISH; see DISH entry below]: Lambert, 1990.

ANTIBIOTICS:

Recovered from micro-organisms in 130 Ma amber: Anonymous, 1996f.

ARTERIOSCLEROSIS:

In unidentified dinosaurs; mention only: Goldman, 1982.

ARTHRITIS (MOST CASES ARE ACTUALLY EXAMPLES OF “DISH” OR DIFFUSE IDIOPATHIC SKELETAL HYPEROSTOSIS; SEE DISH ENTRY BELOW:

:as being found in dinosaurs: Simpson, 1953; Favour, Ritts and Bayles, 1956.

:“hard frills of arthritic growth on toe joints” of Iguanodon: Gardom and Milner, 1993.

:unsubstantiated in paper: Goldman, 1982; Harding, 1988 (Tyrannosaurus).

:Upper Jurassic sauropod Diplodocus [actually DISH]: Look, 1955; Michard, 1992.

:non-infectious erosive arthritis unknown in dinosaurs (mention only): Rothschild and Tanke, 1998a.

:“arthritic condition” possibly leads to fusions of cervical and dorsal vertebrae in Late Cretaceous Tyrannosaurus: Dingus, 1996.

:mention only (popular): Currie and Koppelhus, 1996.

See also: Talbot, 1978; Rothschild, 1988a; 1990; 1993; Tanke and Rothschild, 1997; Rothschild and Tanke, 1998a.

ASYMMETRY:

In: slight bilateral asymmetry of braincase in unnamed Late Cretaceous “El Picacho Ceratopsian”: Lehman, 1996.

:asymmetrical orbital horncore length in a new Triceratops skull: Kaye, 1997.

:asymmetry of frill in unspeciated ceratopsians due to fracture early in life (popular): Currie and Koppelhus, 1996.

:asymmetrical fusion of the last cervical and first dorsal vertebra in a Tyrannosaurus specimen: Carpenter, 1990.

ATROPHY:

In: atrophied ventral edge of squamosal in Late Cretaceous ceratopsian Pachyrhinosaurus; associated with other osteopathic defects and in other unspeciated centrosaurine ceratopsians: Rothschild and Tanke, 1996, 1997.

AVIAN OSTEOPETROSIS:

In: diagnosed in unidentified Romanian dinosaur specimen: Swinton, 1934; Campbell, 1966; Swinton, 1970.

AVULSIONS:

In: humerus of Late Cretaceous Tyrannosaurus: Larson, 1991; Anonymous, 1992c; Larson, 1994a,b; Anonymous, 1997e; Rothschild, 1997.

:“torn ligaments” in Tyrannosaurus: Smith, Peter, 1992.

:unspecified large theropod (mention only): Rothschild and Tanke, 1998a.

BACTERIA:

Fossilization of/role as pathogens: Moodie, 1918c; Goldman, 1982; Clarke and Barker, 1993; Hirsch, 1994b; Anonymous, 1996f.

BIOMINERALIZATION: Trueman, 1997.

BITE INJURIES (see also: Face-biting behaviour):

:injury to fibula of Late Cretaceous Tyrannosaurus rex ascribed to possible “infection after a bite”: Webster, 1999.

:ankylosaur Tarchia skull with possible Tarbosaurus bite and associated post-trauma osteopathy: Gallagher, Tumanova and Dodson, 1998; Tumanova, Gallagher, Dodson and Axel, 1998.

:unhealed bitemarks (conspecific?) atop skull of Velociraptor: Norell, Gaffney and Dingus, 1995.

:possible bite wound affecting caudal neural spine in Acrocanthosaurus: Harris, 1997, 1998.

:supposed bite wounds on skulls of plant-eating dinosaurs related to intraspecific mating activities [unsubstantiated]: Droscher, 1976.

:healed predator damage, skull roof of Kritosaurus: Horner, 1992.

:healing predator damage, pubis of Lurdusaurus: Taquet and Russell, 1999.

BITE STRENGTH:

Of Tyrannosaurus: Anonymous, 1996b,e; Erickson and Olson, 1996; Erickson, Van Kirk, Su, Levenston, Caler and Carter, 1996; Stokstad, 1996; Tchoe, 1996; Staedter, 1997; Douglas and Young, 1998; Erickson, 1999.

BLINDNESS: Croft, 1982 (as a factor contributing to dinosaur extinction): Benton, 1985, 1990.

:inferred in a Pachyrhinosaurus skull with a large circular lesion affecting face and orbital rim: Rothschild and Tanke, 1996, 1997.

:“poor vision” or blindness in the right eye of the Late Cretaceous Tyrannosaurus known as “Sue”, due to intraspecific face-biting: Anonymous, 1996g.

BLOOD (FOSSILIZED):

In: Tyrannosaurus: Kiernan, 1993; Morrell, 1993b; Reid, 1993; Monastersky, 1995a; Schweitzer, Marshall, Carron, Bohle, Arnold, Buss and Starkey, 1996, 1996a; Horner and Dobb, 1997 [mention only].

Apatosaurus: Moodie, 1920; Reid, 1993.

Iguanodon: Seitz, 1907; Moodie, 1920; Reid, 1993.

Dinosaur: Moodie, 1923a; Swinton, 1934, 1970; Abbey, 1977; Talbot, 1978; Folger, 1993; Martill and Unwin, 1997 (dinosaur and ?pterosaur).

:dinosaur blood inside distended abdomen of 93 million year old biting Midge from New Jersey, USA?: Anonymous, 1998a.

Evidence of fossil blood questioned: Martill and Unwin, 1997.

Heme compounds: Schweitzer et al., 1997.

BODY TEMPERATURE:

In: Tyrannosaurus: Millard, 1995.

BONE:

Canaliculi: Pawlicki, 1984c; Schweitzer, 1993 (Tyrannosaurus).

Degeneration of: Upper Jurassic Allosaurus with unusually shortened and pointed (vs. blade-like) chevron with associated roughened bone texture attributed to possible “bone degeneration”: Petersen, Isakson and Madsen, 1972.

Proteins: Wychoff, 1969.

Vascular impressions in: Saul and Saul, 1992, 1993 (non-dinosaur).

Vascular systems of: Pawlicki, 1983, 1984a.

X-Ray microanalysis of: Late Cretaceous ornithomimid Gallimimus: Pawlicki and Bolechala, 1987, 1991.

CALCIUM DEPLETION DUE TO EGG PRODUCTION:

In: Oviraptor: Martill, Barker and Dacke, 1996.

Caution urged in these interpretations: Chinsamy and Barrett, 1997.

CALLUS (See FRACTURES).

CANCER: affecting Upper Jurassic dinosaur bone: Anonymous, 1993b.

:affecting Upper Jurassic Allosaurus distal humerus: Graham, 1992; Greenburg, 1992; Taylor, 1992; Wycombe, 1992 [called a chondrosarcoma by last three authors]; Tanke and Rothschild, 1997.

:“form of bone cancer” possibly leads to fusions of cervical and dorsal vertebrae in Late Cretaceous Tyrannosaurus: Dingus, 1996.

:mention only (popular): Currie and Koppelhus, 1996.

:metastatic cancer, unspeciated Upper Jurassic dinosaur: Monastersky, 1999b; Rothschild, Witzke and Hershkovitz, 1999.

CANNIBALISM:

In: Late Cretaceous Tyrannosaurus rex: Naeye, 1996.

:Triassic Coelophysis: Fisher, 1981; Schwartz and Gillette, 1994.

:unspeciated tyrannosaurids: Tracy, 1976; see editors comments in Jacobsen, 1995b; Jacobsen, 1998.

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM:

Late Jurassic Barosaurus: Choy and Altman, 1992; Norell, Gaffney and Dingus, 1995.

CARTOONS (POPULAR):

:unspeciated sauropods having tails stepped on by conspecifics: Gonick, 1978.

:Tyrannosaurus being bitten by Mosquito: Rubin, 1998.

:Tyrannosaurus afflicted with gout: Hecht, 1996; Begley, 1997; Okino, 1997; Weintraub, 1998.

CAT (CT) SCANNING and RELATED TECHNOLOGIES:

:utilization of on Late Cretaceous Tyrannosaurus rex skull: Bakker, 1992.

:study of fused sauropod (Apatosaurus, Camarasaurus and Diplodocus) caudal vertebrae: Rothschild and Berman, 1991.

:Late Cretaceous ankylosaur Tarchia skull: Gallagher, Tumanova and Dodson, 1998; Tumanova, Gallagher, Dodson and Axel, 1998.

:UNIX: Manz, 1992.

:MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): Sebes, Langston, Gavant and Rothschild; Rothschild, 1995, 1997.

:dinosaur eggs: Quan and Wei-de, 1995.

:general comments/discussions: Leitch, 1988; Rothschild, 1995; Gould, Marcus, Gueziec, Daleo and Reddy, 1996; Rothschild, 1997; Tanke and Rothschild, 1997; Kappleman, 1998 (lasers, hi resolution x-ray, CT, hard copy output and animations).

:Late Cretaceous Tyrannosaurus rex “Sue” skull: Webster, 1999.

CHOKING:

In: Upper Jurassic sauropod Seismosaurus possibly chokes on a large gastrolith (stomach stone): Begley and Yoffe, 1991; Gore, 1993; Lessem and Glut, 1993; Christiansen, 1996a.

:Antarctic Jurassic theropod Cryolophosaurus found with several lengths of prosauropod ribs lodged in the throat region= death by choking?: Hammer and Hickerson, 1993; Anonymous, 1994c; Hammer, Hickerson and Slaughter, 1995; Hammer, 1997; Lore, 1998.

COLLAGEN:

In: unspeciated prosauropod: Isaacs, Little, Currey and Tarlo, 1963.

:Late Cretaceous Tyrannosaurus: Schweitzer, 1993; Schweitzer, Cano, Starkey and Horner, 1994; Schweitzer et al., 1997.

:unspeciated Late Cretaceous dinosaur: Pawlicki, Korbel and Kubiak, 1966.

:dinosaurs (general discussion): Bocherens, 1997.

COLOR VARIATIONS; PATHOLOGIC VS. NON-PATHOLOGIC BONE:

In: Late Cretaceous Albertosaurus; face-bite lesions show yellowish-colored “halos” surrounding some wounds: Tanke and Currie, submitted; see also comments in Keiran, 1999 entry.

CONGENITAL DEFECTS:

In: dinosaur footprints showing missing toes- ?congenital abnormality?: Thulborn, 1990.

:lateral curvature of cervical neural spines in Middle Cretaceous Acrocanthosaurus; not post-mortem crushing; congenital?: Harris, 1997, 1998.

:hemi-vertebra wedge in embryonic Late Cretaceous hadrosaur Hypacrosaurus

:congenitally twisted metatarsal in hatchling hadrosaur Maiasaura: Horner and Gorman, 1985, 1988; Young, 1980; Tanke and Rothschild, 1997.

COPROLITES: Chin, 1991, 1994, 1996, 1997; Chin, Tokaryk, Erickson and Calk, 1998.

CREATIONIST VIEWPOINT: Helder, 1991.

CYSTS:

In: sagittal crest rim of Late Cretaceous small theropod Troodon: Currie, 1985.

:dinosaurs (general discussion): Rothschild, 1988a.

:ceratopsian Pachyrhinosaurus skull (facial/orbital region): Spinar and Currie, 1994; Rothschild and Tanke, 1997.

:Late Cretaceous ceratopsian Torosaurus squamosal: Moodie (in Lull, 1933).

DEFORMITIES: vertebrae in Early Cretaceous Iguanodon following healing of fractures: Anonymous, 1995d; Hawkes, 1995.

:“Crooked Leg” a hatchling Upper Cretaceous hadrosaur Maiasaura, so named because of a congenitally deformed (club-footed) metatarsal: Horner and Gorman, 1985, 1988; see also Young, 1980.

DENTAL ANOMALIES (see TOOTH/TEETH).

DIFFUSE IDIOPATHIC SKELETAL HYPEROSTOSIS (DISH):

In: Upper Jurassic sauropod Diplodocus: Hatcher, 1901; Osborn, 1904; Holland, 1906; Moodie, 1919b; 1927; Gilmore, 1930; Schlumberger and Lucke, 1948; Ackerknecht, 1953; Stolk, 1958 [who called it a hemangioma]; Blumberg and Sokoloff, 1961; McIntosh, 1977; Machotka, 1984; Rothschild, 1985b, 1987a, 1988c; Rothschild and Berman, 1991; Michard, 1992; Rothschild and Martin, 1992; Rothschild and Tanke, 1992; Rothschild, 1994; Christiansen, 1996b; Rothschild, 1997; Rothschild and Tanke, 1998b.

:Upper Jurassic sauropod Apatosaurus: Gilmore, 1936; Blasius and Kaiser, 1980; Rothschild, 1985b, 1987a, 1988c; Rothschild and Tanke, 1992; Rothschild, 1994; Christiansen, 1996b; Rothschild, 1997; Myhrvold and Currie, 1998.

:Upper Jurassic sauropod Camarasaurus: Moodie, 1919b; Hagood, 1971/2; McIntosh, 1977; Rothschild, 1987a; Rothschild, 1994; McIntosh, Miles, Cloward and Parker, 1996; Rothschild, 1997.

:Upper Jurassic Allosaurus: Rothschild, 1987a.

:unidentified sauropod: Moodie, 1916, 1918a; Gonick, 1978.

:possible occurrence in Late Cretaceous horned dinosaur Pachyrhinosaurus: Olinger, 1987a.

:fusions of caudal vertebrae/chevron in Allosaurus and caudal vertebral fusion in Camptosaurus attributed to “neoplastic ankylosis” of traumatic origin or “rheumatoid arthritis” [=DISH]: Petersen, Isakson and Madsen, 1972.

:general discussion: Rothschild, 1985a.

General comments: Simpson, 1953 (incorrectly called arthritis); Rothschild, 1987a; McGowan, 1991; Rothschild and Martin, 1992; Rothschild, 1997; Tanke and Rothschild, 1997; Rothschild and Tanke, 1998a.

DISEASE: causes or contributes to the extinction of dinosaurs: Simpson, 1953; Raymond, 1958; Spieker, 1960; Battaglia, 1979; Bakker, 1986; Benton, 1990; Lidner, 1992; Gore, 1993; Horner and Dobb, 1997.

DIFFUSE IDIOPATHIC SKELETAL HYPEROSTOSIS (DISH): cont’d

 

:“diseased” metatarsal IV and digit III ungual and distal articulating end of penultimate phalanx (the former “small and amorphous”, the latter similar but less so) in a specimen of Gorgosaurus: Lambe, 1917.

:diseased Triceratops bones (no other details given): Russell, 1989.

:“damage or disease” to distal caudal vertebrae of the sauropod Cetiosaurus: Moodie, 1923a; Swinton, 1965b.

:parietal of Late Cretaceous ceratopsian Pachyrhinosaurus: Tanke, 1989b.

:possibly causing extra openings in ceratopsian frills: Lull, 1933.

:possibly causing exostosis development in Upper Jurassic Allosaurus scapula blade: Anonymous, 1998f.

DISH (see DIFFUSE IDIOPATHIC SKELETAL HYPEROSTOSIS)

“DIVOTS” (OSTEOCHONDRAL DEFECTS AFFECTING HADROSAUR PEDAL PHALANGES):

:Tanke, 1989a; Rothschild, 1997; Rothschild and Tanke, 1998a.

DNA STUDIES: Rothschild, 1989a; Cherfas, 1990, 1991; Anonymous, 1993a (mention only); Begley, 1993; Paabo, 1993; Schweitzer and Cano, 1994 (Tyrannosaurus); Schweitzer, Cano, Starkey and Horner, 1994 (Tyrannosaurus); Woodward, Weyand and Bunnell, 1994; Anonymous, 1995a,b,c; Hong, 1995 (rDNA from dinosaur eggs); Currie, 1996 (eggs); Bocherens, 1997 (mention only); Horner and Dobb, 1997 (Tyrannosaurus, mention only); Parrish, 1997 (overview); Schweitzer and Lessem, 1997 (discussion); Irwin, 1998 (failure of research to confirm dinosaur and fossil DNA).

DNA STUDIES POPULAR AND/OR REFUTED: Pellegrino, 1985; Johnson, 1991a,b; Kiernan, 1993; McAuliffe, 1993; Morell, 1993b; Lewin, 1994; Aldhous, 1995; Allard, Young and Huyen, 1995; Anonymous, 1995b; Hedges and Schweitzer, 1995; Henikoff, 1995; Marshall, 1995; Monastersky, 1995; Norell, Gaffney and Dingus, 1995; Zischler, Hoss, Handt, von Haesler, van der Kuyl, Goudsmit and Paabo, 1995.

ECTOPARASITES:

:activities of affecting dorsal surfaces of scutes of Early Cretaceous ankylosaur Stegopelta and unspeciated Late Cretaceous ankylosaurs from Alberta, Canada?: Moodie, 1910; Tanke in Moodie, 1910.

:Late Cretaceous unspeciated ankylosaur scutes with crater-like depressions – = to ectoparasite damage?: Tanke and Rothschild, 1997.

 

:activities of affecting dorsal surfaces of scutes of a new genus(?) of Late Campanian nodosaur and undescribed polacanthid material: Ford, Kirkland and Elder, 1998.

:possible parasite activities leave lesions on fused sacral shield of Early Cretaceous Gastonia: Kirkland, 1998.

:Lower Cretaceous bird feather with ?mite eggs attached; some dinosaurs similarly affected?: Anonymous, 1999a; Martill and Davis, 1998a,b.

EGGS:

“Bad” eggs: Albritton, 1989.

Chemical analysis of eggs vs. pathological condition: Dauphin, 1991; Zhao, 1991; McNamara, 1992b.

Columnar layer with malarranged crystalline calcite:

:Late Cretaceous Elongatoolithus andrewsi: Zhao et al., 1991.

Eggshell formation: Trueman, 1997.

Eggshell pathology from Upper Jurassic of Utah, USA more like that of extant Turtles than Birds; evolutionary dino-bird relationship thus questioned: Feduccia, Martin and Simmons, 1996.

General mentions of: Carpenter, Hirsch and Horner, 1994a; Zelenitsky, 1995.

High Iridium content: Tazaki, Aratani, Noda, Currie and Fyfe, 1994.

Multilayering of eggshell:

:Cretaceous sauropod Hypselosaurus: Dauphin and Sirugue, 1958a; Anonymous, 1969 (up to 7 layers); Erben, Hoefs and Wedepohl, 1979; Albritton, 1989; Dauphin, 1991; Rothschild, 1997; Tanke and Rothschild, 1997.

:unspecified Upper Jurassic dinosaur, Utah, USA: Anonymous, 1989a,b; Sobel, 1989.

:egg pathology (multilayering) in extant emydid Turtles (subfamily: Batagurinae) and implications for multilayered eggshells in dinosaurs: Ewert, Firth and Nelson, 1984.

:Jurassic and Cretaceous dinosaur eggs: Hirsch, 1989a,b; 1994a,b; Hirsch, Stadtman, Miller and Madsen, 1988, 1989; Madsen, 1991.

:dinosaur eggs from India: Mohabey, 1984; Jain, 1989.

:Maestrichtian-aged dinosaur eggs, France: Kerourio, 1981.

:unidentified Senonian-aged dinosaur: Sochava, 1971.

:comments on normal “avian-like” Late Cretaceous small theropod Troodon eggshell to pathological multilayering of eggshell in contemporaneous dinosaurs; thereby suggesting a more reptile-like oviduct system in the latter: Varricchio, Jackson, Borkowski and Horner, 1997.

:contra to the above: Jackson, Solomon and Varricchio, 1998.

:in Late Cretaceous Spheroolithus albertensis: Zelenitsky and Hills, 1997.

:in Late Cretaceous Megaloolithus khempurensis: Mohabey, 1998.

:Late Cretaceous Macroolithus yaotunensis; M. rugustus and M. sp.: Zhao et al., 1991.

Thickening of eggshell:

:Macroolithus species: Zhao et al., 1991.

Thinning of eggshell:

:Anonymous, 1972; Erben, 1972; Desmond, 1976; Swain, 1976; Cruickshank, 1977; Oelofsen, 1978; Zhao, 1978; Erben, Hoefs and Wedepohl, 1979; Anonymous, 1982; Penner, 1983, 1985; Balsai, 1987; Hirsch, 1989a, unpublished ms.; Benton, 1990; Dauphin, 1990; Zhao, 1994; Tanke and Rothschild, 1997.

:Cretaceous sauropod Hypselosaurus: Erben, Hoefs and Wedepohl, 1979; Anonymous, 1982; Williams, Seymour and Kerourio, 1984; Albritton, 1989; Benton, 1990.

:unspeciated sauropod, France [probably Late Cretaceous, Hypselosaurus]: Anonymous, 1972.

:unspeciated ceratopsian: Swain, 1976.

:miscellaneous oospecies: Zhao et al., 1991.

Thinning eggshell, type(s) unspecified: Desmond, 1976; Cruickshank, 1977; Oelofson, 1978.

Unspecified pathological condition(s): Jain, 1986; Zeng and Zhang, 1979; Vianey-Liaud, Jain and Sahni, 1987.

EMBEDDED FOREIGN OBJECTS:

:Tyrannosaurus tooth fragment found embedded in pathologic Tyrannosaurus cervical rib: Burnham, 1992; Larson, 1992, 1995; Monastersky, 1995b; Anonymous, 1996g (listed as being embedded in a cervical vertebra); Anonymous, 1997d,f; DeFeo, 1997; Olert, 1997.

EMBRYOGENESIS: McLean, 1995; Horner, 1997.

EPIMELETIC RESPONSE (CARE OF INJURED/SICK ANIMALS BY CONSPECIFICS):

:Late Cretaceous tyrannosaur Tyrannosaurus: Larson, 1992; Anonymous, 1996c; Anonymous, 1997e.

:Late Cretaceous hadrosaur Maiasaura hatchling: Young, 1980.

:Late Cretaceous tyrannosaur Albertosaurus: Felber, Currie and Sovak, 1998.

:caution urged in such interpretations: Tanke and Rothschild, 1997.

EXOSTOSIS:

:associated with healing fibula fracture in Tyrannosaurus rex: Anonymous, 1991b.

:on ischium of Late Jurassic sauropod Seismosaurus (might actually represent tendons): Gillette, 1991.

:ventral surface of Triceratops scapula: Gilmore, 1919a; Moodie, 1923a; Romer, 1924; Rothschild, 1997.

:anterior edge of neural spine of 3rd caudal vertebra in Early Cretaceous Acrocanthosaurus: Stovall and Langston, 1950.

:extra bone growth affecting Allosaurus pedal phalanx: Madsen, 1976a.

:Allosaurus scapula; [associated with a traumatic fracture]: Moodie, 1917; Rothschild, 1987b; Rothschild and Martin, 1992; Rothschild, 1997; Anonymous, 1998f.

:smooth, gently cratered, low, rounded knob on external surface of scapula, Late Cretaceous ceratopsian Pachyrhinosaurus: Olinger, 1987b; Tanke, 1989b.

:unspecified large theropods (mention only): Rothschild and Tanke, 1998a.

:endplate destruction and spur-like exostosis on cervical vertebra and bone spur on articulating surface of quadrate in the Late Cretaceous ceratopsian Pachyrhinosaurus: Tanke, 1989b, submitted b.

:collar-like exostosis affecting proximal periarticular region of an Upper Jurassic Allosaurus pedal phalanx: Travsky, 1996.

:“exostotic development” associated with caudal vertebrae fracture in Late Cretaceous Tyrannosaurus: Anonymous, 1997e.

:cervical vertebra in Late Cretaceous Tyrannosaurus “immobilized” by “extra bone growth”: Anonymous, 1997f.

:“small bony lump” affecting unspecified region of lower jaw in Late Cretaceous Tyrannosaurus: Anonymous, 1996g.

:mushroom-like growth affecting pedal phalanx of Gorgosaurus: Keiran, 1999.

:Triceratops dentary: Rothschild, 1997.

EXTINCTION:

As a result of comet impact: Hsu, 1980.

As a result of disease: Simpson, 1953; Spieker, 1960; Colbert, 1961; Cooper and Jackson, 1981; Colbert, 1983; Lidner, 1992.

As a result of Oxygen depletion: Hecht, 1993.

As a result of toxins in newly evolved Late Cretaceous plants: Tiffney, 1989 (reply to Bakker’s suggestion).

EXTRA OPENINGS (FONTANELLES) IN FRILLS OF HORNED DINOSAURS (see also PUNCTURES): Hatcher, 1905; Lull (in Hatcher, 1905); Lull, 1905; Gilmore, 1906, 1920b; Parks, 1925; Wieland, 1925; Wiman, 1930; Lull, 1933; Gilmore, 1935; Geis, 1959, 1960; Erickson, 1966; de Camp and de Camp, 1968; Tyson, 1977; Mateer, 1981; Rowe, Colbert and Nations, 1981; Sattler, 1981; Tyson, 1981; Glut, 1982; McGinnis, 1982; Godfrey and Holmes, 1995; Ostrom and Wellnhofer, 1986; Tokaryk, 1986; Berghaus and Gabriel, 1988; Dixon, Cox, Savage and Gardiner, 1988; Johnson, 1989; Russell, 1989; Dodson and Currie, 1990; Farlow, 1990; Forster, 1990a; Lehman, 1990; Reid, 1990; Various authors, 1990; Lessem, 1992; Lessem and Glut, 1993; MacLeod, 1994; Olshevsky, 1994; Spinar and Currie, 1994; Godfrey and Holmes, 1995; Johnson and Ostrom, 1995; Clos, 1996; Dodson, 1996; Forster, 1996a,b; Rothschild and Tanke, 1997; Tanke, submitted b; Tanke manuscript.

FALLS RESULTING IN INJURIES OR DEATH:

:Allosaurus: Hecht, 1998.

:Sinraptor: Tanke and Currie, 1998.

:Tyrannosaurus: Alexander, 1996; Hecht, 1995; Anonymous, 1996a; Farlow, Smith and Robinson, 1995; Douglas and Young, 1998; Hecht, 1998 (non-fatal).

:unspeciated Campanian tyrannosaurid: Grierson, 1998.

:Iguanodon: Blows, 1978, 1989.

FEATHERS:

?Mite eggs attached to Lower Cretaceous bird feather (some dinosaurs affected too?): Anonymous, 1999a; Martill and Davis, 1998a,b.

FOOTPRINTS:

Footprints showing injuries to foot: Jurassic Eubrontes: Abel, 1935.

:Sauroidichnites abnormis: Hitchcock, 1844.

:unidentified mid-Jurassic small theropod, Morroco: Ishigaki, 1986a,b; 1988.

:unspecified: Thulborn, 1990; Tanke and Rothschild, 1997.

:prosauropod Anchisauripus; malformed toe: Tucker and Burchette, 1977.

Limping dinosaur trackways:

In: Upper Jurassic theropod, Moab, Utah, USA: Anonymous, 1991c.

:unidentified mid-Jurassic small theropod, Morroco: Jenny and Josen, 1982; Ishigaki, 1986a,b; 1988.

:unidentified sauropod: Ishigaki, 1989.

:Caririchnium leonardii: Lockley, Matsukawa and Hunt, 1993; Lockley and Hunt, 1995; Hunt and Lucas, 1998.

:small theropod dinosaur Skartopus: Wade, 1989.

:unspecified dinosaur, site KB-17, Koum Basin, Cameroon: Jacobs, 1993.

:various occurrences: Thulborn, 1990; Lockley, 1991; Lockley, Matsukawa and Hunt, 1993; Lockley, Hunt, Moratalla and Matsukawa, 1994 (bipedal and quadrupedal dinosaurs); Tanke and Rothschild, 1997 (general comments).

FORENSICS: Rowe, 1990.

FRACTURES (BONE); BY BODY REGION/BONE ELEMENT:

Cranial/mandibular ramus:

: ?unilateral jaw fracture Gorgosaurus libratus: Tanke and Currie, submitted.

:fractured and healed horncore in Late Cretaceous Triceratops: Benes and Burian, 1979; l982.

:jaws of Late Cretaceous ceratopsians: Gilmore, 1920b.

:orbital horncore, distal portion lost premortem: Hatcher, Marsh and Lull, 1908.

:skulls of Late Cretaceous Triceratops: Swinton, 1934; Camp, 1968; Swinton, 1970; Triceratops horncores); Burton and Dixon, 1984; Tokaryk, 1986 (transverse fracture of parietal and associated frill trauma).

:horncore of Triceratops: Gilmore, 1919a, 1920b; Moodie, 1923a; de Camp and de Camp, 1968; Gurney, 1992 (science fiction), 1995 (science fiction).

:“Labrosaurus” dentary missing anterior end; etiology undetermined: Gilmore, 1920.

:nasal boss in horned dinosaur Pachyrhinosaurus =snapped off nasal horncore: Norman, 1985.

:parietals of Pachyrhinosaurus: Olshevsky, 1988; Tanke, 1989b.

:left lateral parietal of Centrosaurus specimen: Parks, 1921.

:orbital horncore, Late Cretaceous ceratopsian Chasmosaurus [=fracture?]: Sternberg, 1927.

:right parietal (with fontanelle closure) of Late Cretaceous ceratopsian “Monoclonius lowei” [actually a preservational artifact only?]: Sternberg, 1940.

:orbital horncore tip of an unspeciated ceratopsian [cf. Anchiceratops] with pseudoarthrosis development: Rothschild and Tanke, 1992.

:Triceratops dentary: Moodie, 1923a; Swinton, 1934, 1970.

:hadrosaur dentary; frills of ceratopsians, resulting in asymmetry: Currie and Koppelhus, 1996.

:unspeciated ceratopsian frill fractures: Rothschild, 1997.

:bilateral dentary fractures and effect on tooth development: Tanke and Rothschild, 1997.

Shoulder girdle:

:Allosaurus scapula: Gilmore, 1915; Moodie, 1917, 1923a; Swinton, 1934, 1970; Anonymous, 1998f.

:Triceratops scapula with massive exostosis development: Gilmore, 1919a; Romer, 1924; Rothschild, 1997.

Forelimbs:

:severe transverse fracture of humerus of unspeciated hadrosaur [AMNH 5207; also plaster cast TMP98.11.1]: Moodie, 1919b, 1923a; Macdonald and Sibley, 1969; Swinton, 1970.

:crush fractures of humeri in Late Cretaceous tyrannosaurids Daspletosaurus and Gorgosaurus: Russell, 1970; Vance, 1989; Rothschild, 1994.

:radius of Upper Jurassic Allosaurus: Petersen, Isakson and Madsen, 1972; Madsen, 1976a; Molnar and Farlow, 1990.

:humeri of Gorgosaurus and Allosaurus: Molnar and Farlow, 1990.

:metarcarpals of hadrosaur Anatosaurus with marked angulation and infection: Moodie, 1926b; Rothschild and Martin, 1992.

:ulna in Late Cretaceous Oviraptor: Norell, Clark, Chiappe and Dashzeveg, 1995; Popeo, 1996; Zimmer, 1997; Clark, Norell and Chiappe, 1999.

:radii of unspeciated Late Cretaceous hadrosaurs: Tanke, 1989a.

:fusion of unspeciated Late Cretaceous hadrosaur radius/ulna following mid-length fracture of both elements: Tanke, 1996b.

:“damaged finger” in Upper Jurassic Allosaurus: Travsky, 1996.

:well healed humerus fracture, Allosaurus: Petersen, Isakson and Madsen, 1972.

:leg fracture implied based on histology sample of Tyrannosaurus limb bone: Horner and Lessem, 1993.

Vertebrae/Tendons:

:proximal caudal neural spines, unspeciated Late Cretaceous hadrosaurs: Sternberg, 1921; Tanke, 1989a; Anonymous, 1994a; Rothschild, 1994; Kawakami, 1996; Rothschild, 1997.

:dorsal neural spines in Late Cretaceous hadrosaur Parasaurolophus: Parks, 1922; Lull and Wright, 1942; Tanke, 1989a, submitted a.

:broken and healed vertebrae in Early Cretaceous Iguanodon: Anonymous, 1995d; Hawkes, 1995.

:proximal caudal neural spines, Camptosaurus: Rothschild, 1997.

:possible broken neural spine in 11th caudal in Acrocanthosaurus: Stovall and Langston, 1950.

:broken and healed proximal caudal neural spine tip, with angulation; Lambeosaurus: Morris, 1976, 1981.

:trampled and crushed distal caudal vertebrae in Late Cretaceous hadrosaurids: Tanke, 1989a (with associated post-trauma fusions); Begley and Yoffe, 1991; Grant, 1991; Wright, 1991; Westrup, 1992; Struzik, 1993; Rothschild, 1997; Tanke and Rothschild, 1997.

:tail of Late Cretaceous Tyrannosaurus rex: Burnham, 1992; Smith, Peter, 1992; Anonymous, 1996g; Anonymous, 1997e (crushed/fractured caudal vertebrae).

:compression fracture of dorsal vertebra (centrum) in Upper Jurassic Camptosaurus: Erickson, 1988.

:Becklespinax neural spines: Lessem and Glut, 1993.

:dorsal neural spines 10 and 11 of large theropod Monolophosaurus, with fusion: Zhao and Currie, 1993.

:“clubbing” of ends of proximal caudal neural spines in Asian lambeosaurine hadrosaur Barsboldia [= pathological healed fractures; sensu Alberta, Canada hadrosaur material?]: Maryanska and Osmolska, 1981.

:abnormal angulation of dorsal neural spines 5-7 with fusion at tips (with associated rib fracture trauma) in Late Cretaceous hadrosaur Parasaurolophus: Parks, 1922.

:hypothetical tail fracture in Deinonychus: Psihoyos, 1994.

:“peculiar terminal vertebrae” [ie. distal caudals] in an unspeciated Late Cretaceous hadrosaur [presumably an example of crush (trampled) fracturing]: Sternberg, 1921.

:“damage or disease” to extreme distal caudal vertebrae of the sauropod Cetiosaurus: Swinton, 1965b; fractured according to Woodward, 1905.

:marked lateral curvature of neural spine of ?16th caudal vertebra in Acrocanthosaurus, also possible associated healing bite wound (tooth puncture): Harris, 1997, 1998.

:fused sauropod caudals = healed fracture [actually DISH]: Moodie, 1918a.

:possible healing neural spine fractures in Spinosaurus (type specimen): Stromer, 1915.

:healed tendon fractures in unspeciated Late Cretaceous hadrosaurs: Tanke, 1989a.

Ribs/Gastralia:

:left posterior dorsal ribs in Upper Jurassic Sinraptor dongi: Tanke and Currie, submitted.

:imperfectly healed cervical rib, Late Cretaceous Tyrannosaurus rex: Anonymous, 1992c; Smith, Peter, 1992.

:double-fracture of dorsal rib in shaft Late Cretaceous hadrosaur cf. Edmontosaurus: Anonymous, 1994a.

:ribs of Upper Jurassic Brachiosaurus: Kaiser, 1954b; Blasius and Kaiser, 1980.

:unspeciated sauropod ribs: Rothschild, 1997.

:Upper Jurassic Apatosaurus, one forming a pseudoarthrosis: Swinton, 1934, 1970; Chenoweth, 1987.

:gastralia basket (some fractures forming pseudoarthroses) in Upper Jurassic Allosaurus: Gilmore, 1920; Claessens, 1996, ms.

:several bilateral dorsal ribs with well healed fractures and one gastralium with imperfectly healed fracture forming a pseudoarthrosis in Late Cretaceous tyrannosaurid Gorgosaurus: Currie, 1997a.

:right 3rd dorsal rib and 13th and 14th right gastral ribs of Late Cretaceous Gorgosaurus: Lambe, 1917.

:rib(s) Tyrannosaurus: McGinnis, 1982; Larson, 1991; Dingus, 1996; Anonymous, 1997e,f; Avila, 1998.

:two right dorsal ribs; unspeciated lambeosaurine hadrosaur, Alberta, Canada: Lowey, 1992.

:posterior dorsal ribs in ceratopsians Centrosaurus and Pachyrhinosaurus: Rothschild, 1994.

:dorsal rib fractures in Late Cretaceous hadrosaurs Edmontosaurus (single fracture); Prosaurolophus and Parasaurolophus (multiple contiguous fractures): Lull and Wright, 1942.

:ribs in Late Cretaceous horned dinosaur Chasmosaurus and uncrested hadrosaur Prosaurolophus; both from Alberta, Canada: McGowan, 1983; Cronkite, 1991; McGowan, 1991.

:possible cervical rib fracture in Megalosaurus: Owen, 1856.

:rib fractures in Late Cretaceous hadrosaur Parasaurolophus (with associated vertebral anomalies): Parks, 1922.

:rib fracture in Late Cretaceous hadrosaur Edmontosaurus: Parks, 1935.

:rib fractures in Upper Jurassic sauropod Apatosaurus: Riggs, 1903.

:gastral rib fracture, Plateosaurus: Sander, 1992.

:rib fractures (some in series; ie. type of Parasaurolophus) in unspeciated Late Cretaceous hadrosaurs: Tanke, 1989a.

:Late Cretaceous ceratopsian Pachyrhinosaurus; mid and posterior dorsal rib fractures most common pathology observed in this genus/subfamily: Tanke, 1989b; Westrup, 1992.

:several healing rib fractures in Upper Jurassic Allosaurus: Travsky, 1996.

:ribs in Upper Jurassic Allosaurus and Late Cretaceous Tyrannosaurus; related to falling while running: Anonymous, 1996h (14 ribs, Allosaurus); Hecht, 1998.

:gastral rib fracture, unspeciated Campanian tyrannosaur: Grierson, 1998.

:multiple dorsal rib fractures, one forming a pseudoarthrosis, possible pseudoarthrosis of gastralia. One dorsal showing possible healing bite mark (tooth puncture), Acrocanthosaurus: Harris, 1997, 1998.

:rib fracture, Late Cretaceous Daspletosaurus (possible new species): Williamson and Carr, 1999.

:ribs, Gorgosaurus: Rothschild, 1997.

Pelvic girdle:

:fusion of right ilium and ischium in Lower Cretaceous Iguanodon: Blows, 1978, 1989.

:ischial fracture in Early Cretaceous Iguanodon: Swinton, 1934, 1970; Cooper and Jackson, 1981; Norman and Milner, 1989; Gardom and Milner, 1993; Rothschild, 1997.

:ischia of unspeciated Late Cretaceous hadrosaurs: Tanke, 1989a.

:large hole in ilium of Upper Jurassic Allosaurus “caused by a blow”, pus draining sinus evident: Travsky, 1996.

:pelvic fractures in iguanodont and hadrosaurs: Tanke and Rothschild, 1997.

Hind limbs:

:leg (unspecified) [in these cases of the fibula]: Tyrannosaurus rex: Burnham, 1992; Smith, Peter, 1992; Monastersky, 1995b; Olert, 1997.

:unspeciated theropod limb and foot fractures: Rothschild, 1997.

:tibia, unspeciated Early Cretaceous hypsilophodontid [later determined to be osteomyelitis only]: Rich and Rich, 1990; Monoghan, Rich and Rich, 1991.

:tibia and metatarsus of Syntarsus: Rothschild and Martin, 1992; Rothschild, 1997.

:fibula, Tyrannosaurus rex: Anonymous, 1991b; Larson, 1991; Anonymous, 1992c; Larson, 1992, 1995; Anonymous, 1996c,g; Holmes, 1996; Anonymous, 1997e; Browne, 1997; Webster, 1999 (not specifically identified as a fracture).

:fibula, Allosaurus: Gilmore, 1920; Welles and Long, 1974.

:possible fracture of distal fibula in Gorgosaurus specimen: Lambe, 1917.

:fibula Gorgosaurus/Albertosaurus: McGowan, 1991; Poling, 1996; Rothschild, 1997; Felber, Currie and Sovak, 1998; Keiran, 1999.

:fibula of Late Cretaceous hadrosaur Parasaurolophus: Ostrom, 1963.

:metatarsals, type specimen of Ceratosaurus: Baur, 1890; Gilmore, 1920.

:Deinonychus pedal phalanx: Ostrom, 1976; Rothschild, 1997; Marshall, Brinkman, Lau and Bowman, 1998.

:fibula; unspeciated hadrosaur, Bayan Mandahu, Gobi Desert, China: Duncan, 1991.

Limb; phalanges:

:phalanges- stress fractures: Begley and Yoffe, 1991; Wright, 1991.

:stress fracture of unspeciated ceratopsian phalanx: Rothschild, 1988b; Rothschild and Martin, 1992; Rothschild and Tanke, 1992; Rothschild, 1997.

:stress fractured phalanx of Late Cretaceous ceratopsian Pachyrhinosaurus: Tanke, 1989b.

:stress fractured phalanges in Centrosaurus, Styracosaurus, Triceratops and Pachyrhinosaurus: Rothschild and Tanke, 1992.

Armour, scutes, plates:

:tail spike in Upper Jurassic Stegosaurus with subsequent infection making the spike look like “melted wax”: Carpenter, 1996.

:open fractures of tail spikes in Stegosaurus with secondary chronic osteomyelitis: Gilmore, 1914; Carpenter, 1998; McWhinney, Rothschild and Carpenter, 1998, submitted.

:Dravidosaurus blanfordi tail spike with healed fracture?: Yadagiri and Ayyasami, 1979.

Compression fracture:

:dorsal vertebra centrum in Upper Jurassic Camptosaurus: Erickson, 1988.

FROSTBITE:

Possibly affecting dinosaurs at high latitudes: Paul, 1989.

?FUNGAL EROSIONS:

In: ?fungal erosions [probably resorption pitting] in crania of Late Cretaceous horned dinosaurs Pachyrhinosaurus, Centrosaurus and Styracosaurus: Langston, 1975; see also Sampson, Ryan and Tanke, 1997 for comments.

FUSIONS See also: DIFFUSE IDIOPATHIC SKELETAL HYPEROSTOSIS:

In: two distal caudal vertebrae in Late Cretaceous Tyrannosaurus rex: Anonymous, 1991b; Larson, 1991; Anonymous, 1992c (listed as crushed and healed); Larson, 1995; Holmes, 1996; DeFeo, 1997 (listed as “crushed and displaced”).

:fusions in sauropod caudal vertebrae, tumors?: Swinton, 1934, 1970.

:right ilium and ischium of Lower Cretaceous Iguanodon: Blows, 1978, 1989.

:of dorsal vertebrae 4 and 5 in the Late Cretaceous horned dinosaur Styracosaurus, etiology unattempted: Brown and Schlaikjer, 1937.

:fusion of caudal vertebrae in Upper Jurassic sauropod Diplodocus: Moodie, 1923a (probably DISH).

:asymmetrical fusion of last cervical and first dorsal vertebrae in AMNH specimen of Late Cretaceous Tyrannosaurus rex: Carpenter, 1990; Rothschild, 1997.

:fusion of 2 cervical vertebrae in Tyrannosaurus “Stan”: Anonymous, 1997f.

:metatarsals of Upper Jurassic Ceratosaurus: Harding, 1988; Rowe and Gauthier, 1990.

:dorsal neural spines 10 and 11 in large theropod Monolophosaurus, due to traumatic fracture: Zhao and Currie, 1993.

:two proximal vertebrae in Late Cretaceous ankylosaur Paleoscincus: Gilmore, 1930.

:vertebrae in Iguanodon: Hawkes, 1995.

:two [distal] caudal vertebrae in Iguanodon “not uncommon”: Norman, 1980.

:fusions of distal caudal vertebrae into a “bar of bone” following a traumatic distal tail amputation in an unspeciated Late Cretaceous hadrosaur, Alberta, Canada: Langston, 1961.

:2 mid-caudal vertebrae [=DISH?] in Upper Jurassic theropod Allosaurus: Madsen, 1976a.

:caudal vertebrae and chevron in Upper Jurassic Allosaurus [probably DISH], but described here as a “neoplastic ankylosis” of traumatic origins: Petersen, Isakson and Madsen, 1972.

:fusion of two caudal vertebrae in Upper Jurassic Camptosaurus: Petersen, Isakson and Madsen, 1972.

:cervical vertebrae in Late Cretaceous ceratopsians: Rothschild, 1985b.

:metatarsals of type specimen of Ceratosaurus: Baur, 1890; Marsh, 1892a, 1896.

:distal caudal vertebrae of sauropod Cetiosaurus: Moodie, 1917.

:vertebrae in Tyrannosaurus: Norman, 1985.

:fusions of neural spine tips of dorsal vertebrae 5-7 (and associated rib fracture trauma) in Late Cretaceous hadrosaur Parasaurolophus: Parks, 1922.

:of 3rd and 4th caudal vertebrae in the barapasaurid sauropod Vulcanodon: Raath, 1972.

:mid caudal vertebrae fusions in Late Jurassic sauropods Apatosaurus, Camarasaurus and Diplodocus; alternative explanation to the DISH interpretation: Kaye, 1998.

:fusions of 2-3 distal caudal vertebrae in unspeciated Late Cretaceous hadrosaurs: Tanke, 1989a; Rothschild, 1997.

:fusion of unspeciated Late Cretaceous hadrosaur radius/ulna following mid-length fracture an healing of both elements: Tanke, 1996b.

:“bamboo appearance” to vertebrae in Polacanthus; =fusion?: Zorab, 1961.

:distal caudal vertebrae of a new Camarasaurus specimen: McIntosh, Miles, Cloward and Parker, 1996.

:cervical vertebrae V and VI in Centrosaurus: Lull, 1933.

:caudal vertebrae in Iguanodon: Rothschild and Tanke, 1992.

:fusion of 2 cervical and 2 dorsal vertebrae in Late Cretaceous Tyrannosaurus: Dingus, 1996.

:caudal vertebrae of Diplodocus and other sauropods generally: Coombs, 1975.

:fusion of tibia, fibula, astragalus and calcaneum of undetermined etiology in a an unidentified Triassic theropod dinosaur: Heckert et al., 1999.

:fusion of chevron and caudal vertebra of unknown etiology in large theropod Poekilopleuron: Eudes-Deslongchamps, 1938.

:fusion of last 3 or 4 caudal vertebrae into a club-like mass; =pathologic?: Shiwu, 1984.

:fusions of cervical vertebrae in Camarasaurus [erroneous?]; Diplodocus [erroneous?] and Tyrannosaurus: Moodie, 1919b.

:sauropod caudal fusions = DISH: Tanke and Rothschild, 1997.

GASTROLITHS: (See CHOKING entry).

GENERAL/BOOK REVIEWS:

Rothschild and Tanke, 1992, 1997.

Book review of: Bakker, 1986 by Balsai, 1987.

Book review of: Moodie, 1923a by Romer, 1924.

GOUT:

In: Tyrannosaurus and unspeciated Judithian-aged tyrannosaurid: Anonymous, 1996h; Anonymous 1997a,g; Browne, 1997; Hecht, 1997; Radford, 1997; Rothschild, 1997; Rothschild, Tanke and Carpenter, 1997a,b; Torassa, 1997; Ma, 1998; Rothschild and Tanke, 1998a; Spalding, 1999.

Popular (newspaper/magazine) articles regarding discovery of gout in tyrannosaurids: Anonymous, 1997a,b; Begley, 1997; Browne, 1997; Hecht, 1997; Monastersky, 1997; Okino, 1997; Torassa, 1997; Douglas and Young, 1998; Weintraub, 1998.

HAEMANGIOMA (HEMANGIOMA):

:unspeciated Upper Jurassic dinosaur, Utah, USA: Anonymous, 1993b; Anonymous, 1998d; Rothschild and Tanke, 1998a,b; Rothschild, Tanke, Hershkovitz and Schultz, 1998; Talbot, 1998.

:Upper Jurassic sauropod Diplodocus: Stolk, 1958 [actually a case of DISH; see Rothschild and Berman, 1991].

:unspeciated sauropod, USA [actually DISH]: Moodie, 1918c.

“HALF-SIDED VERTEBRAE”:

In: Dysalotosaurus (Dryosaurus): Janensch, 1934.

:hemi-vertebra wedge in Late Cretaceous embryonic hadrosaur Hypacrosaurus: Tanke and Rothschild, 1997.

HEAD-BUTTING IN ANKYLOSAURS: Kirkland, 1998 (Gastonia).

HEAD-BUTTING IN PACHYCEPHALOSAURS: Galton, 1970; Sues, 1978; Paul, 1988; Tanke, 1988a; Carpenter, 1993; Goodwin and Johnson, 1995; Carpenter, 1997; Goodwin, Buchholts and Johnson, 1998; Ford, 1998.

HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES: Talbot, 1978; Garland, 1989; Late Cretaceous juvenile Maiasaura long bones: Barreto, 1994; growth plate histology: Barreto, 1996; pathologic Early Cretaceous Iguanodon centrum: Clarke and Barker, 1995; Tumarkin, n.d.

:Iguanodon abnormal bone histology: Radley, 1996.

:Histology of dinosaur tendons and pathological bone: Reid, R., 1984.

Histological techniques: Chinsamy and Raath, 1992.

Specimens (histological) figured:

:normal vs. pathological dinosaur bone, Alberta, Canada: McGowan, 1991.

INFECTIONS:

:incurred from feeding on carcasses: Laws, 1997; Tanke and Currie, submitted.

:small holes in Late Cretaceous Tyrannosaurus skulls may represent drainage sinuses at sites of infection: Anonymous, 1996g; Brochu (in Webster, 1999).

:infectious periostitis affecting unspeciated ceratopsian scapula and coronoid: Rothschild, 1997.

INSECTS:

Blood-sucking biting flies (fam. Ceratopogonidae): Pellegrino, 1985; Currie, 1987 (“biting flies”); Borkent, c. 1993, 1995; Currie and Koppelhus, 1996; Anonymous, 1998a; Labandiera, 1998.

Fossil Midges: Pellegrino, 1985; Grimaldi, 1993; McAuliffe, 1993; Tanke and Rothschild, 1997; Anonymous, 1998a; Labandiera, 1998; Nash, 1998.

Parasitic on dinosaurs?: Pellegrino, 1985; Grogan and Szadziewski, 1988; Schneider, 1996; Tanke and Rothschild, 1997; Anonymous, 1998a; Nash, 1998.

INTERSPECIFIC FIGHTING:

:Velociraptor vs. Protoceratops: Kielan-Jaworowska and Barsbold, 1972; Wood et al., 1972; Barsbold, 1974; Lessem, 1992; Duchesne and Leitch, 1993; Hamley, 1993; Osmolska, 1993; Horner, 1994; Norell, Gaffney and Dingus, 1995; Tomida, 1995; Unwin, Perle and Trueman, 1995; Amery, 1997; Currie, 1997b; Tanaka, 1998.

:Ankylosaurs vs. Tyrannosaurids: Anonymous, 1994a; Thulborn, 1994; Currie, 1997a; DeFeo, 1997; Felber, Currie and Sovak, 1998.

:Upper Jurassic Ceratosaurus vs. 2 Allosaurus: Battaglia, 1979.

:Tyrannosaurus vs. Triceratops: Geis, 1959, 1960.

:predatory dinosaurs vs. ceratopsians: Swinton, 1966; Tweedie, 1977.

:Pachyrhinosaurus vs. other ceratopsian species: Rothschild and Tanke, 1997.

:interspecific biting spreads fatal disease (science fiction): Crichton, 1995.

:Late Cretaceous tyrannosaurids Albertosaurus vs. Daspletosaurus (science fiction): Felber, Currie and Sovak, 1998.

See also: Gertsch, 1994; Tanke and Rothschild, 1997.

INTRASPECIFIC FIGHTING:

Small/Large Theropods: Tyrannosaurus: Slaughter, 1957; Velociraptor (science fiction): Crichton, 1995; Allosaurus Laws, 1997; Utahraptor Bakker, 1995 (science fiction).

Hadrosaurs: Tanke, 1989a, submitted; Cronkite, 1991.

Horned dinosaurs: Hatcher, Marsh and Lull, 1908; Lull, 1908; Schelle, 1954; Cox, 1976; Tyson, 1977 [extra holes in frill mostly not related to fighting]; Heritage, 1980; Mateer, 1981 (“extra” holes in frills NOT related to intraspecific fighting); Sattler, 1981; Stout, Service and Preiss, 1981; Halstead and Halstead, 1987; Dixon et al., 1988; Paul, 1988; Tanke, 1989b, ms [rare examples of osteopathy suggest a more peaceful nature than supposed]; Dodson et al., 1990; Farlow, 1990; Various authors, 1991; Rothschild and Tanke, 1992; Westrup, 1992 [rare]; Lessem and Glut, 1993; MacLeod, 1994; Olshevsky, 1994; Spinar and Currie, 1994; Fastovsky and Weishampel, 1996; Rothschild and Tanke, 1997 (rare examples in Triceratops; contra popular literature); Tanaka, 1998.

Evidence for rarity of fighting in horned dinosaurs: Mateer, 1981 (“extra” holes in frills of horned dinosaurs NOT related to intraspecific fighting); Rothschild and Tanke, 1992.

:Eamon, 1991; Dodson, 1996 Pachyrhinosaurus; Centrosaurus Tanke and Rothschild, 1997.

:Centrosaurus and Pachyrhinosaurus: Rothschild and Martin, 1992.

:Triceratops: Rothschild and Tanke, 1997; Tanke, ms.

Dome-head dinosaurs: Galton, 1970; Tanke, 1988a; Carpenter, 1993, 1998; Ford, 1998; Goodwin and Johnson, 1995; Goodwin, Buchholts and Johnson, 1998.

Face-biting behavior: small and large theropod dinosaurs; Upper Jurassic and Late Cretaceous: Tanke and Rothschild, 1997; Felber, Currie and Sovak, 1998; Erickson, 1999; Tanke and Currie, submitted.

:Late Cretaceous Tyrannosaurus rex: Molnar, 1973; Lessem, 1988; Harlan, 1990 (listed as “jaw injury” only); Molnar and Farlow, 1990; Anonymous, 1992c; Larson, 1992; Molnar, 1992; Smith, Peter, 1992; Gore, 1993; Morell, 1993a; Larson, 1994a,b; Psihoyos, 1994; Norell, Gaffney and Dingus, 1995; Schowalter, 1995b; Anonymous, 1996c,h; Holmes, 1996; Naeye, 1996; Tanke (in Janke, 1996); Tanke, 1996a; Anonymous, 1997d-f; Browne, 1997; Currie, 1997a; DeFeo, 1997; Olert, 1997; Douglas and Young, 1998; Tanke (in Larson, 1998); Tanke and Currie, submitted.

:face-biting in Tyrannosaurus rex seriously questioned: Brochu (in Webster, 1999).

:“punctured jaw”, Tyrannosaurus: McGinnis, 1982.

:poorly healed rib, Tyrannosaurus: Avila, 1998.

:Upper Jurassic Allosaurus: Molnar and Farlow, 1990; Molnar, 1992; Schowalter, 1995b.

:Early Cretaceous Carcharodontosaurus saharicus: Anonymous, 1996d.

:unspeciated plant-eating dinosaur skulls with conspecific bite wounds; related to mating behavior: Droscher, 1976.

:Upper Jurassic Sinraptor dongi: Farlow and Molnar, 1995; Tanke and Currie, 1995, submitted.

:unhealed bitemarks atop cranium of Late Cretaceous small theropod Velociraptor =intraspecific fighting: Norell, Gaffney and Dingus, 1995.

:Late Cretaceous tyrannosaurid Albertosaurus: Schowalter, 1995b; Tanke and Currie, 1995; Felber, Currie and Sovak, 1998.

:Herrerasaurus: Sereno and Novas, 1993.

:enlarged upper caniform teeth in Early Jurassic Heterodontosaurus used as weapons during intraspecific fighting (face-biting not specifically stated): Weishampel, 1992.

General discussion: Molnar, 1977.

Head-butting (non-pachycephalosaurid): in Tyrannosaurus: Lessem, 1988.

Horn thrust injuries: frill in Late Cretaceous ceratopsian Torosaurus: Berghaus and Gabriel, 1988; Anonymous, 1990a,b.

:frill of Diceratops and Triceratops: Hatcher, Marsh and Lull, 1908.

See also, Tanke, manuscript.

Skull injuries:

In: Triceratops: Hatcher, Marsh and Lull, 1908; Burton and Dixon, 1984.

Tyrannosaurus: Burnham, 1992.

LIGHTNING STRIKES: Aragon, 1985; Late Cretaceous tyrannosaurid Albertosaurus moves away from open areas during thunderstorms to avoid being hit by lightning (science fiction): Felber, Currie and Sovak, 1998.

LIMPING (see also FOOTPRINTS):

:?limping in an unspeciated Late Cretaceous hadrosaur following severe mid-length fracture of radius and ulna: Tanke, 1996b.

:limping in Late Cretaceous tyrannosaur Albertosaurus following fibula fracture (science fiction): Felber, Currie and Sovak, 1998.

:limping in Late Cretaceous Tyrannosaurus due to lower leg fracture improperly healed: Browne, 1997.

:large lesion affecting Upper Jurassic Camptosaurus ilium possibly makes animal “lame”: Anonymous, 1998f.

:occurrence of limping dinosaur trackways: Tanke and Rothschild, 1997 (mention only).

MALFORMATIONS:

:dinosaur footprints showing malformation of toes: Thulborn, 1990; Tanke and Rothschild, 1997.

:digit malformation in an Anchisauripus (prosauropod) footprint: Tucker and Burchette, 1977.

MALOCCLUSION: Tanke and Rothschild, 1997 (theropods generally); Rothschild, 1997 (Tyrannosaurus); Tanke and Currie, submitted (Gorgosaurus).

MASS MORTALITY (This section of the index deals mostly with the mass mortality of post-hatchling to full adult-sized dinosaurs. The presence of nests or clusters of dinosaur eggs could represent infertile eggs. However it is difficult to consider preservation of nesting horizons due to all eggs being infertile. Most of these cases probably reflect fertile eggs that perished in situ, perhaps due to factors such as flooding, incorrect temperatures during incubation, volcanic ashfall, abandonment, etc. In the strictest sense, then, these do fall under of the category of mass mortality. Most authors, do not specifically address this aspect of research in their papers. There are many papers on eggs, nests and nesting grounds and most of these are probably representative of mass mortality events. However, we present only a selected listing of citations here. In the planned second edition of this bibliography, coverage of eggs, nests and nesting grounds will be more extensive.

Mass mortality is considered here as involving three or more animals of the same species, dying over a relatively short time (hours-days), perishing from the same circumstances and being preserved together or in obvious association in the case of disarticulated material. Extinction events are not included in this listing).

Arsenic poisoning: dinosaurs in Dashanpu Quarry, China: Wenjie, Xiuhua, Yuangfang and Hongde, 1983; Wenjie, Xiuhua and Zhqiang, 1984; Lessem, 1992.

Bogged down in sticky mud/quicksand:

Mud:

:Coelophysis: Ratkevitch, 1976; Fisher, 1981.

:Allosaurus: Stokes, 1945; Richmond and Morris, 1996.

:Plateosaurus: Sander, 1992.

:possible situation in an Apatosaurus bonebed, Montana, USA: Horner and Dobb, 1997.

Quicksand:

:Coelophysis: Fisher, 1981; Colbert, 1989.

Botulism poisoning:

:unspeciated Late Cretaceous hadrosaurs [Hypacrosurus, Prosaurolophus] and small theropods [Troodon] who then scavenged on the infected carcasses: Rogers, 1997; Varricchio, 1997; Horner and Dobb, 1997.

Drought/Thirst: Huene, 1928; Carpenter, 1988b.

:Maiasaura: Rogers, 1988; Horner and Dobb, 1997.

:Prosaurolophus: Rogers, 1989, 1990; Horner and Dobb, 1997.

:Hypacrosaurus: Horner and Dobb, 1997.

:Einiosaurus: Rogers, 1989, 1990; Rogers and Sampson, 1989; Horner and Dobb, 1997.

:Coelophysis: Schwartz and Gillette, 1994.

:unspeciated Late Cretaceous hadrosaurine and lambeosaurine hadrosaurs: Varricchio and Horner, 1993.

:some Late Cretaceous horned dinosaur bonebeds: Dodson and Currie, 1990; Sampson, 1997.

Drowning:

:Late Cretaceous Centrosaurus: Currie, 1981, 1982, 1987; Pringle, 1989; Ryan, 1992, 1993; Norman, 1994; Ryan and Russell, 1994; Eberth, 1996, 1998; Tanaka, 1998.

:Late Cretaceous Pachyrhinosaurus: Olinger, 1987a; Tanke, 1989b.

:Late Cretaceous Centrosaurus and Styracosaurus: Wood and Thomas, 1986; Currie, 1987; Eberth, 1996.

:Late Cretaceous Styracosaurus: Visser and Thomas, 1986.

:Late Cretaceous hadrosaur Edmontosaurus: Tedesco, Halvorsen and Cooper, 1998a,b.

:Late Cretaceous dinosaur type(s) unspecified Burgess, 1996.

:Upper Triassic Coelophysis: Colbert, 1989; Coy, 1997.

:some Late Cretaceous horned dinosaur bonebed occurrences: Dodson and Currie, 1990.

:Late Cretaceous titanosaur sauropod eggs suffocated by flooding, Patagonia, Argentina: Anonymous, 1998e; Chang, 1998; Hayden, 1999; Ritter, 1999.

:Late Cretaceous dinofauna, Mongolia: Jerzykiewicz, 1998.

:Late Cretaceous Nemegt dinofauna killed by flooding: Kielan-Jaworowska, 1969; Loope, Dingus, Swisher and Minjin, 1998.

Famine: Carpenter, 1988b (herbivorous dinosaurs generally).

Predation attempts: Early Cretaceous Deinonychus vs. Tenontosaurus: Ostrom, 1969; Paul, 1988; Maxwell and Ostrom, 1995; Horner and Dobb, 1997 [considered this possibility unlikely].

Suffocation: Reynolds, 1988; Currie, 1989; Lessem, 1989a,b; Duncan, 1991; Acorn, 1993; Grady, 1993; Jerzykiewicz, Currie, Eberth, Johnston, Koster and Zheng, 1993 (group of no less than 13 juvenile Late Cretaceous Pinacosaurus overwhelmed by sandstorm and buried).

:Late Cretaceous dinofauna, due to burial by sand/duststorms: Jerzykiewicz, 1998.

:unspeciated oviraptorids cf. Ingenia; unspeciated oviraptorid eggs (with embryos); unspeciated ankylosaurids and numerous small lizards and mammals: Dashzeveg et al., 1995.

Volcanic eruption:

:Late Triassic Coelophysis: Colbert, 1947.

:Upper Cretaceous hadrosaur Maiasaura herd; ashfall: Hooker, 1987; McDonald, 1994.

:dinosaur eggs, France; selenium poisoning due to volcanic eruption: McNamara, 1992b.

:unspeciated hadrosaur eggs, China: Anonymous, 1998a.

:volcanic ashfall overwhelms small dinosaur Echinodon and smaller vertebrates, Fruita Paleo Area, Colorado, USA: Silbernagel, 1996.

:volcanic ashfall kills Late Cretaceous hadrosaur Hypacrosaurus eggs, embryos, neonates, Montana, USA: Horner and Dobb, 1997.

Other:

:Triassic Coelophysis; poisoned by drinking highly alkaline water: Ratkevitch, 1976.

:9+ Late Cretaceous Albertosaurus overcome by forest fire smoke: Felber, Currie and Sovak, 1998.

:some Late Cretaceous horned dinosaur bonebeds possible mass mortality events induced by fire: Dodson and Currie, 1990.

:general comments, Centrosaurus, Pachyrhinosaurus: Dodson and Smith, 1999.

Unstated:

:9+ Late Cretaceous Albertosaurus, Alberta, Canada: Anonymous, 1997c, Currie [in Anonymous, 1997e]; Anonymous, 1998b; Erickson, 1999; Fischman, 1999; Currie, submitted.

:Upper Jurassic Cleveland-Lloyd Quarry, Utah, USA a predator [Allosaurus] trap: Dodson, Behrensmeyer, Bakker and McIntosh, 1980.

:Pachyrhinosaurus bonebed, Colville River, Alaska: May and Gangloff, 1999.

:Edmontosaurus bonebed and 8 other unspeciated hadrosaur bonebeds in and around the city of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada: Tanke [in Tanke, 1984].

:Edmontosaurus bonebed [=mass mortality?; unstated as such in paper]: Derstler, 1996.

:Protoceratops [actually Oviraptor] eggs, Mongolia: Osborn, 1924.

:4 subadult Late Cretaceous hadrosaurs Corythosaurus, Alberta, Canada: Dodson, 1971.

:several small groupings of juvenile Early Cretaceous Tenontosaurus: Forster, 1990b.

:5+ juvenile Late Cretaceous horned dinosaur “Brachyceratops”: Gilmore, 1917.

:unspecified numbers of juvenile hadrosaurs collected from one quarry, Montana, USA: Gilmore, 1929.

:Late Jurassic Cleveland-Lloyd quarry (rich in Allosaurus) has an unspecified “catastrophic” origin: Hunt, 1986.

:estimated remains of 300,000+ Upper Cretaceous dinosaur eggs, 24 nests also preserved, Bastus, Spain: Sanz et al., 1995; Sanz and Moratalla, 1997.

:Upper Cretaceous hadrosaur Maiasaura nestlings: Gore, 1993.

:Upper Cretaceous hadrosaur Maiasaura bonebed containing disarticulated remains of thousands of individuals (= mass mortality?); etiology uncertain: Schmitt, Horner, Laws and Jackson, 1998.

:unspeciated hadrosaur eggs and embryos, Late Cretaceous, Montana, USA: Clouse and Horner, 1993; Clouse, 1995.

:Late Cretaceous Edmontosaurus bonebed, Ruth Mason Quarry: Anonymous, 1998-1999.

:Upper Cretaceous dinosaur eggs, Montana, USA: Horner, 1984.

:Dinosaur eggs, India: Jain, 1989.

:Late Cretaceous Styracosaurus, Centrosaurus, Triceratops, Pachyrhinosaurus, Parasaurolophus, Maiasaura and Hypacrosaurus bonebeds, Alberta, Canada and Montana, USA: Horner, 1994.

:unstated dinosaur and ceratopsian bonebeds, compared to extant mass mortality events: Kindle, 1919; 1921.

:Late Cretaceous Pachyrhinosaurus; early Jurassic Syntarsus: Lessem and Glut, 1993.

:Plateosaurus and Chasmosaurus: Norell, Gaffney and Dingus, 1995.

:Syntarsus: Raath, 1990.

:Late Cretaceous ceratopsian Einiosaurus: Sampson, 1995.

:“catastrophic” origins for Late Cretaceous hadrosaur Edmontosaurus and contemporaneous ceratopsian Pachyrhinosaurus bonebed: Langston, 1976.

:Late Cretaceous hadrosaur Edmontosaurus/ceratopsian Pachyrhinosaurus bonebed: Sternberg, 1950.

:Late Cretaceous small theropod Troodon: Varricchio, 1993.

:Late Cretaceous ceratopsian Styracosaurus: Visser, 1986; Visser and Thomas, 1986.

:Late Cretaceous tyrannosaurid Gorgosaurus [actually Albertosaurus]: Tanaka, 1998; Anonymous, 1998b.

:unidentified large theropod related to Giganotosaurus; Argentina: Anonymous, 1998b, c.

:possible “catastrophic mass accumulation” of unknown etiology in the Middle Jurassic cetiosaur sauropod Patagosaurus: Coria, 1994.

:Late Cretaceous sauropod eggs/embryos: Anonymous, 1998g; Chiappe, 1998; Chiappe et al., 1998, 1999.

:new genus of Late Cretaceous centrosaurine ceratopsian: Ryan et al., 1999.

:Late Cretaceous unspeciated ceratopsian bonebeds: Sternberg, 1921.

:Late Cretaceous ceratopsian Anchiceratops bonebed(s?): Sternberg, 1926.

:Late Cretaceous Hypacrosaurus neonates, Prosaurolophus and Einiosaurus low diversity bonebeds, Troodon nests and nesting horizons and unspeciated hadrosaur and ceratopsian bonebeds: Rogers, 1997.

:Late Cretaceous hadrosaur Hypacrosaurus and ceratopsian Pachyrhinosaurus, Alberta, Canada: Acorn, 1993.

:Late Cretaceous hadrosaur Edmontosaurus: Anonymous, 1997e.

:Late Cretaceous hadrosaur Hypacrosaurus: Currie, 1988; Grady, 1993.

:Late Cretaceous bonebeds, Montana, USA: ceratopsian Achelosaurus; hadrosaurs Gryposaurus, several Hypacrosaurus bonebed sites, Prosaurolophus, unspeciated lambeosaurine nests; Hypacrosaurus and Troodon eggs and babies: Horner and Dobb, 1997.

:Upper Jurassic Apatosaurus bonebed, Montana, USA: Horner and Dobb, 1997.

:Lower Cretaceous Proctor Lake locality, many hypsilophodontid skeletons found together: Winkler et al., 1988; Winkler and Murray, 1989.

:Leptoceratops n. sp. bonebed, Late Cretaceous Two Medicine Fm., Montana [unstated as actually representing a mass mortality occurrence]: Chinnery and Trexler, 1999.

MATING/COURTSHIP TRAUMA AND INJURIES:

In: Camptosaurus: Gilmore, 1909, 1912; Lewin, 1982; Rothschild and Martin, 1992; Rothschild and Tanke, 1992.

Iguanodon: Blows, 1989.

Sauropods: Begley and Yoffe, 1991.

Tyrannosaurus: injury (fracture) of two distal vertebrae related to mating activities?: Anonymous, 1997e.

Tyrannosaurs: Vance, 1989; Rothschild and Tanke, 1992 (humeri fractures); Schowalter, 1995b.

Hadrosaurs: Tanke, 1989a, submitted a; Cronkite, 1991; Wright, 1991; Rothschild and Tanke, 1992; Westrup, 1992; Struzik, 1993; Spinar and Currie, 1994.

Unspeciated plant-eating dinosaur skulls bearing conspecific bite wounds; related to mating activities: Droscher, 1976.

Unspecified/general: Fritz, 1988; Anderson, 1994.

METABOLISM: Erben, Hoefs and Wedepohl, 1979; Pawlicki, 1983; Barrick, 1996.

MIMICRY: ankylosaur tailclub acts as a head mimic, thus attracting attentions of a predator away from vulnerable head region: Thulborn, 1994.

MISCELLANEOUS:

:bifurcation of a gastral rib element in and unspeciated Late Cretaceous dromaeosaurid: Norell and Makovicky, 1997.

:unspecified pathologies affecting Late Cretaceous hadrosaur Brachylophosaurus: Hanna, LaRock and Horner, 1999.

:erosion and destruction of unknown etiology in pedal phalanx of large theropod Poekilopleuron: Eudes-Deslongchamps, 1838.

:discovery of [prey] bone with healed tyrannosaur bite/toothmarks would be good evidence for a predaceous lifestyle in Late Cretaceous Tyrannosaurus: Waggoner, 1994-1999.

:unusual twist near mandibular symphysis of a ?Troodon dentary related to allowing 1st dentary tooth to cut through egg at time of hatching or a birth defect?: Carpenter, 1982.

:unspecified tail injuries in Late Cretaceous hadrosaurs: Rein, 1990.

:notch in premaxilla of Late Cretaceous ankylosaur Paleoscincus: Gilmore, 1930; Rothschild, 1997.

:groove on 5th cervical vertebra prezygapophysis; pathological or post-mortem artifact?: Welles, 1984.

:twisting of proximal right fibula in a Procompsognathus skeleton: Sereno and Wild, 1992.

:unspecified pathological growth affecting ?fibula of Upper Triassic prosauropod Camelotia: Galton, 1998.

:brief mention of pathological dinosaur specimens recovered from the Upper Jurassic Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry, USA: Stokes, 1985.

:swelling of neural spines in Late Cretaceous hadrosaurs; a pathologic manifestation or just advanced-age related?: Brett-Surman, 1989.

:mention of D.Tanke’s work on paleopathology in Late Cretaceous hadrosaurs and ceratopsians: Fiorillo, 1991.

:unspecified tail injury in Tyrannosaurus: Harlan, 1990.

:“mushroomed” distal end of ornithomimid pedal phalanx, Late Cretaceous, Alberta, Canada: Kawakami, 1996.

:possible foot injury in small theropod ichnogenus Skartopus as revealed by footprints: Wade, 1989.

:smooth pit and roughened knob on right prepubis of immature Late Cretaceous hadrosaur Kritosaurus: Waldman, 1969.

:abnormal orientation of orbital horncores in Late Cretaceous horned dinosaur Arrhinoceratops; abnormal width of pachycephalosaur Gravitholus dome: Lessem and Glut, 1993.

:dome of Late Cretaceous pachycephalosaurid Gravitholus “pathological”; but unsubstantiated in paper: Maryanska, 1990.

:injured vertebra of Tyrannosaurus: McGinnis, 1982.

:trauma-related pathology affecting ilium blade of Upper Jurassic theropod Marshosaurus: Madesn, 1976b.

:deep lesion affecting proximal articulating surface of tibia in ?Lambeosaurus laticaudus: Morris, 1976, 1981.

:mention of paleopathologies in Late Cretaceous horned dinosaurs: Steel, 1969.

:unspecified injury affecting right orbital horncore of the Late Cretaceous ceratopsian Chasmosaurus: Sternberg, 1927.

:is the “folded frontal” complex in Late Cretaceous ceratopsian Pachyrhinosaurus abnormal? [later shown to be a normal feature]: Sternberg, 1950.

:ceratopsian pathology, general mention only: Swinton, 1965a.

:osteopathy of unspeciated Late Cretaceous hadrosaur pedal phalanges: Tanke, 1989a.

:mention of rare occurrences osteopathy in the Late Cretaceous ceratopsians Centrosaurus and Styracosaurus: Tanke, 1989b.

:unspecified vertebral osteopathy in Late Cretaceous Protoceratops; related to advanced age: Tereshchenko, 1991.

:anomalous curvature of nasal horncore in 2 specimens of the Late Cretaceous ceratopsian Pentaceratops?: Lull, 1933.

:Late Cretaceous ceratopsian Triceratops with right mandibular ramus “somewhat pathologic”; no other details provided: Lull, 1933.

MOODIE, ROY LEE:

Work by: Parkinson, 1930.

MOSQUITOES: Crichton, 1990; Currie and Koppelhus, 1996; Voynick, 1996; Rubin, 1998.

MULTIPLE MYELOMA:

In: Late Cretaceous horned dinosaur Torosaurus squamosal: Lull, 1933; Moodie (in Lull, 1933); Norman, 1985; see also Tanke, manuscript.

NECROSIS:

:Upper Jurassic Camptosaurus ilium: Moodie, 1923a; Rothschild, 1997.

:Upper Jurassic Stegosaurus plate: Moodie, 1919b, 1923a.

NEWSPAPER/MAGAZINE ARTICLES: Anonymous, 1934a; Colbert, 1947, 1961; Anonymous, 1965, 1969; Macdonald and Sibley, 1969; Anonymous, 1972, 1977a; Gonick, 1978; Talbot, 1978; Battaglia, 1979; Young, 1980; Currie, 1981; Anonymous, 1985; Aragon, 1985; Benton, 1985; Byers, 1987; Olinger, 1987a,b; Fritz, 1988; Leitch, 1988; Olshevsky, 1988; Reynolds, 1988; Tanke, 1988a; Anonymous, 1989a; Olshevsky, 1989; Sobel, 1989; Whitehead, 1989; Anonymous, 1990a,b; Harlan, 1990; Monastersky, 1990; Rein, 1990; Rempel, 1990; Anonymous, 1991a,b; Begley and Yoffe, 1991; Eamon, 1991; Johnson, 1991a,b; Monastersky, 1991; Wright, 1991; Anonymous, 1992a,b; Bakker, 1992; Bowler, 1992; Burnham, 1992; Greenberg, 1992; Larson, 1992a; McNamara, 1992b; Taylor, 1992; Westrup, 1992; Whitehead, 1992; Wycombe, 1992; Begley, 1993; Folger, 1993; Hecht, 1993b; McAuliffe, 1993; Morell, 1993a,b; Struzik, 1993; Walter, 1993; Anderson, 1994; McDonald, 1994; Aldhous, 1995; Hecht, 1995a; Larson, 1995; Marshall, 1995; Monastersky, 1995a,b; Anonymous, 1996a-f; Burgess, 1996; Carpenter, 1996; Currie, 1996; Hecht, 1996; Holmes, 1996; Monastersky, 1996; Stokstad, 1996; Tanke, 1996b; Tchoe, 1996; Anonymous, 1997a-c, e; Begley, 1997; DeFeo, 1997; Monastersky, 1997; Olert, 1997; Radford, 1997; Staedter, 1997; Varricchio, 1997; Zimmer, 1997; Anonymous, 1998d; Monastersky, 1999a, b; Webster, 1999.

NOTOCHORDAL PROJECTIONS:

In: caudal vertebrae of Late Cretaceous ankylosaur Paleoscincus: Gilmore, 1930.

OPISTHOTONUS (see also POISONING):

In: Upper Jurassic Archaeopteryx and Compsognathus; condition explained: Davis, 1996.

:opisthotonic-like condition affecting skeletons of Archaeopteryx, Compsognathus and Struthiomimus; =poisoning?: Moodie, 1923a.

:Compsognathus: Halstead and Middleton, 1972.

:taphonomic opisthotonus-like effect in Late Cretaceous Struthiomimus: Osborn, 1916; Desmond, 1976.

:taphonomic opisthotonus-like condition in Late Cretaceous Gorgosaurus skeleton: Keiran, 1999.

:Plateosaurus: Sander, 1992.

:Albian Scipionyx, Italy: Dal Sasso and Signore, 1998a, b.

:fossil and modern examples of this condition: Weigelt, 1927 [1989].

General discussions/rebuttals: Moodie, 1918d; Dean, 1919; Moodie, 1919a, b; Matthew and Brown, 1923; Kielan-Jaworowska, 1969; Swain, 1976; Davis, 1996.

ORAL CONDITIONS EXCLUSIVE OF DENTITION:

Abscesses, hadrosaur: Lambe, 1902; Gilmore, 1924; Moodie, 1930b; Rothschild and Martin, 1992; Currie and Koppelhus, 1996 (popular); Tanke and Rothschild, 1997.

Amputation?: premortem loss of anterior dentition and mandibular symphyseal region in “Labrosaurus”: Rothschild, 1997.

OSTEOARTHRITIS: Incorrectly cited as being common disorder in dinosaurs: Abrams, 1953; Norman, 1985; Rothschild and Tanke, 1992; Walter, 1993; Tanke and Rothschild, 1997.

Comments on the misuse of the term “osteoarthritis” in dinosaurs/actual misuse: Rothschild, 1988a, 1990; Rothschild and Martin, 1992; Rothschild and Tanke, 1992; Rothschild, 1993; Horner and Lessem, 1993; Rothschild, 1997; Tanke and Rothschild, 1997.

In: Lower Cretaceous Iguanodon: Rothschild, 1988a; 1989b; Rothschild and Martin, 1992; Rothschild and Tanke, 1992; Rothschild, 1993, 1994, 1997.

:affecting distal caudal vertebrae of a new Upper Jurassic sauropod Camarasaurus: McIntosh, Miles, Cloward and Parker, 1996 (actually DISH?].

:“degenerative arthritis” affecting pedal phalanges and caudal vertebrae in Upper Jurassic Allosaurus: Petersen, Isakson and Madsen, 1972.

OSTEOCYTES: Pawlicki, Korbel and Kubiak, 1966; Pawlicki, 1977a, 1978a, 1984b,c; Fukuda, 1987; Schweitzer, 1993.

OSTEOMA:

In: Late Cretaceous ankylosaur Tarchia skull (sinus region): Gallagher, Tumanova and Dodson, 1998; Tumanova, Gallagher, Dodson and Axel, 1998 [probably not an osteoma].

OSTEOMYELITIS:

In: severe case, affecting tibia of Early Cretaceous unspeciated hypsilophodont dinosaur: Monaghan, Rich and Rich, 1991 [erroneously described here as a healed fracture]; Gross, Rich and Vickers-Rich, 1993; Tanke and Rothschild, 1997; Long, 1998.

:tibia of unspeciated Late Cretaceous hadrosaur, Alberta, Canada: Linblad, 1954.

:general comment: Rothschild and Tanke, 1998a.

:unspeciated Late Cretaceous tyrannosaurid pedal phalanx with associated lesions of gout: Rothschild, Tanke and Carpenter, 1997.

:pus-draining sinus in ilium of Upper Jurassic Allosaurus: Travsky, 1996.

:infected pedal phalanx in Upper Jurassic Allosaurus suggestive of traumatic amputation: Petersen, Isakson and Madsen, 1972.

:affecting scapulae of 2 Allosaurus individuals: Petersen, Isakson and Nadsen, 1972.

:rarity of infections in dinosaurs: Rothschild and Tanke, 1992.

:chronic osteomyelitis of tail spikes of Upper Jurassic stegosaur Stegosaurus following traumatic open fractures: Gilmore, 1914; Carpenter, 1998; McWhinney, Rothschild and Carpenter, 1998, submitted.

:pedal phalanx in Early Cretaceous theropod Deinonychus following fracture: Marshall, Brinkman, Lau and Bowman, 1998.

:hadrosaur manus following fracture; Camptosaurus ilium with necrosis: Rothschild, 1997.

OSTEOPHYTES:

In: mid-caudal vertebra and phalanx of unspeciated Late Cretaceous ceratopsians, Alberta, Canada: Johnson and Storer, 1974.

:““nodes” or protuberances” [=osteophytes?] affecting various elements from unspeciated dinosaur elements collected from the Upper Jurassic Cleveland-Lloyd dinosaur quarry: Petersen, Isakson and Madsen, 1972.

:Edmontonia dorsal vertebra, Iguanodon metatarsals: Rothschild, 1997.

PAIN:

In: Late Cretaceous pachycephalosaurid Stygimoloch via flank-butting behavior: Carpenter, 1993, 1997.

:Late Cretaceous pachycephalosaurids Pachycephalosaurus, Prenocephale and Stegoceras via flank-butting behavior: Carpenter, 1997.

:Upper Jurassic unspeciated sauropods after having tail stepped on by conspecifics: Gonick, 1978.

:“agony”; Upper Cretaceous hadrosaur Corythosaurus as demonstrated by the thrown back posture of the head: Helder, 1991 (creationist viewpoint).

:“severe arthritic pain” in Tyrannosaurus due to fusion of vertebrae: Norman, 1985.

:painful rib fractures and cervical and dorsal vertebrae fusions in Late Cretaceous Tyrannosaurus: Dingus, 1996.

:baby Tyrannosaurus suffering from a mid-fibula fracture (science fiction): Crichton, 1995.

:Late Cretaceous Albertosaurus following fracture of fibula and ribs (science fiction): Felber, Currie and Sovak, 1998.

:due to various bone fractures in unspeciated dinosaurs (popular): Currie and Koppelhus, 1996.

:implied from limping dinosaur trackways: Tanke and Rothschild, 1997.

PALEOBIOCHEMISTRY and RELATED TOPICS:

Amino acids: Anatosaurus and Stegosaurus: Abelson, 1954a.

Stegosaurus: Abelson, 1954b.

Carbon-13: Folinsbee, Fritz, Krouse and Robblee, 1970 (eggs); McNamara, 1992a (Anatosaurus and unspeciated hadrosaur bone).

Chemical elements:

:of dinosaur bone: Bocherens, 1997.

Isotopes: Oxygen isotopes in Late Cretaceous Tyrannosaurus rex: Anonymous, 1992b; 1994b; Barrick and Showers, 1994.

:dinosaurs generally: Bocherens, 1997.

Lipids: in Late Cretaceous tyrannosaur Tarbosaurus bone: Pawlicki, 1977b.

Molecules: biomolecules in Late Cretaceous Tyrannosaurus: Schweitzer, 1993; Schweitzer, Cano, Starkey and Horner, 1994.

:dinosaurs generally: Rothschild, 1989a; Bocherens, 1997.

Mucopolysaccharides: Pawlicki, 1977a.

Nitrogen-15: Anatosaurus and unspeciated hadrosaur bone: McNamara, 1992a.

Osteocalcin: Bowler, 1992; Muyzer, Sandberg, Knapen, Vermeer, Collins and Westbroek, 1992.

Oxygen-16: Folger, 1993.

Oxygen-18: Folinsbee, Fritz, Krouse and Robblee, 1970 (eggs); Folger, 1993.

Proteins: Upper Jurassic sauropod Seismosaurus: Anonymous, 1991a; Gurley, Valdez, Spall, Smith and Gillette, 1991; Monastersky, 1991.

:Upper Jurassic sauropod Diplodocus: Miller and Wyckoff, 1968.

:Upper Cretaceous Tyrannosaurus: Schweitzer, 1993.

PALEOPARASITOLOGY: potential use of coprolites for study of dinosaur paleoparasitology: Chin, 1994.

:possible role of parasites on dinosaur predator-prey dynamics: Kuris, 1996.

See also Tanke and Rothschild, 1997.

PALEOPATHOLOGY AND BEHAVIORAL IMPLICATIONS:

In: large theropod dinosaurs; intraspecific face-biting behavior- possible reasons for: Tanke and Currie, 1995, submitted.

:Late Cretaceous horned dinosaurs: Gabriel and Berghaus, 1988; Tanke and Rothschild, 1997.

:Upper Jurassic Allosaurus pathologies indicate “…. a good deal of violent activity” (mention only): Bryant, 1998.

PARASITES:

:possible parasite damage to skin of Lower Jurassic armored dinosaur Scelidosaurus, Charmouth, England: Martill, 1991.

:possible role of parasites on dinosaur predator-prey dynamics: Kuris, 1996.

“PARONYCHODON” OR “PARONYCHODON-LIKE” TEETH: Cope, 1876; Marsh, 1892b; Russell, 1935; Sahni, 1972; Lehman, 1981; Breithaupt, 1985; Standhardt, 1986; Currie, Rigby and Sloan, 1990; Telles Antunes and Sigogneau-Russell, 1991; Zinke and Rauhut, 1994; Baszio, 1997; Girouard, 1997; Zinke, 1998.

PLAY:

Causing injuries in extant juvenile Ibex Capra; did juvenile dinosaurs play too?: Byers, 1987; Tanke and Currie, 1998 (large theropods).

POISONING (see also OPISTHOTONUS):

Alkaline water: Upper Triassic Coelophysis: Ratkevitch, 1976.

Arsenic: Wenjie, Xiuhua, Yuanfang and Honge, 1983; Wenjie, Xiuhua and Zhqiang, 1984; Lessem, 1992.

Botulism: Varricchio, 1997.

Cyanide: Chubb, 1989.

Nickel: Beard, 1990.

Plant toxins: Swain, 1974; Desmond, 1976; Swain, 1976, 1987.

Strychnine: Moodie, 1918d, Dean, 1919; Moodie, 1923a; Desmond, 1976.

POSTURE:

In Diplodocus and other sauropods: Holland, 1910; Desmond, 1976.

PREDATORY BEHAVIOR:

Evidence of: Late Cretaceous Tyrannosaurus rex attacks hadrosaur Edmontosaurus; the latter escapes with caudal neural spine osteopathy: Carpenter, 1988a; submitted; Horner and Lessem, 1993; Erickson, 1999.

:Kritosaurus skull roof showing possible healed bite marks (punctures and tooth drag marks) on dorsal surface: Horner, 1992.

:Late Cretaceous ankylosaur Tarchia skull with possible healed predator (tyrannosaur Tarbosaurus) bite wound and osteoma development within sinus cavity: Gallagher, Tumanova and Dodson, 1998; Tumanova, Gallagher, Dodson and Axel, 1998.

:Aptian-aged iguanodont Lurdusaurus showing healing transversely-oriented tooth punctures (2) and associated bone trauma to left prepubis: Taquet and Russell, 1999.

PSEUDOARTHROSIS (FALSE-JOINT) DEVELOPMENT:

:gastralium of Late Cretaceous Gorgosaurus: Currie, 1997a.

:ceratopsian [cf. Anchiceratops] orbital horncore tip: Rothschild and Tanke, 1992.

:Upper Jurassic Apatosaurus dorsal rib: Chenoweth, 1987.

:Upper Jurassic Allosaurus gastral ribs: Tanke (in Gilmore, 1920a); Claessens, 1996, ms.

:Sauropod Shunosaurus tailclub; are the “caudal spines” actually pathologic caudal neural spines, traumatized and forming pseudoarthroses?: see comments by Tanke (in Zhang, 1988).

:general comment: Tanke and Rothschild, 1997.

PSEUDOPATHOLOGY:

:general discussion: Rothschild, 1997.

“PUNCHED-OUT” LESIONS:

In: Late Cretaceous ceratopsian Pachyrhinosaurus squamosal and other unspeciated centrosaurine ceratopsian cranial elements; the former associated with other cranial osteopathy: Rothschild and Tanke, 1997.

:cystic lesions affecting Late Cretaceous Torosaurus squamosal: Lull, 1933.

PUNCTURES (see also EXTRA OPENINGS IN FRILLS OF HORNED DINOSAURS):

:scapula blade in Late Cretaceous hadrosaur “Claosaurus annectens”: Beecher, 1902; Hatcher, Marsh and Lull, 1908; Moodie, 1923a.

:jugal of Late Cretaceous horned dinosaur Triceratops: Erickson, 1966; Forster and Sereno, 1997.

:non-penetrating puncture (circular depression) affecting left squamosal of Late Cretaceous ceratopsian Centrosaurus: Tyson, 1977.

:cheeks and frills of unspeciated Late Cretaceous ceratopsians: Fastovsky and Weishampel, 1996; Tanaka, 1998.

:possible goring injury in Late Cretaceous ceratopsian Pachyrhinosaurus: Rothschild and Tanke, 1996, 1997.

:anterior to and just above right orbit in a Late Cretaceous ceratopsian Torosaurus: Lull, 1933.

:possible healing bite wounds (tooth punctures) affecting dorsal rib head and ?16th caudal neural spine in Acrocanthosaurus: Harris, 1997, 1998.

:frontal of Upper Cretaceous ceratopsian Triceratops: Moodie, 1923a.

:back of skull of Tyrannosaurus “Stan” shows puncture wound- fits a Tyrannosaurus tooth “perfectly”: Anonymous, 1997f.

:complex ridge and groove arrangement of tubercles in hadrosaur skin may have served to add structural reinforcement to add resistance against tearing or puncturing: Anderson et al., 1998.

:puncture-type lesion affecting the ectopterygoid of a possible new species of the Late Cretaceous tyrannosaur Daspletosaurus: Williamson and Carr, 1999.

See also Tanke, manuscript (ceratopsians).

RADIOGRAPHY (X-RAY) TECHNIQUES: Pawlicki and Bolechala, 1987; Fraser and Shelton, 1988; Rothschild, 1989a; Pawlicki and Bolechala, 1991; Rothschild, 1995.

RESORPTION PITTING:

In: Late Cretaceous ceratopsian Einiosaurus: Sampson, 1995.

:centrosaurine ceratopsian postorbital horncores: Sampson, Ryan and Tanke, 1997.

RICKETS: Anonymous, 1977a; Elisseyev, 1977.

SAUROPOD TAILCLUBS: Shunosaurus: Tanimoto, 1988; Zhang, 1988; Zhiming, Guangzhao and Daxi, 1989; Olshevsky, 1989; Gore, 1993; Lessem and Glut, 1993.

:Omeisaurus: Tanimoto, 1988; Zhiming, Guangzhao and Daxi, 1989.

SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE (SEM) STUDIES: Pawlicki, 1975, 1976, 1978a (see other entries under Pawlicki).

SCARRING:

:bodies of Velociraptor due to intense intraspecific fighting around kill sites (science fiction): Crichton, 1995.

:bodies of Late Cretaceous tyrannosaurid Albertosaurus due to inter- and intraspecific fighting trauma: Felber, Currie and Sovak, 1998.

SCIENCE FICTION/FANTASY: Crichton, 1990, Gurney, 1992; Bakker, 1995; Crichton, 1995; Gurney, 1995; Felber, Currie and Sovak, 1998.

SEPSIS:

Rotting meat particles trapped between tooth serrations leads to a septic bite on prey or conspecifics: Abler, 1992, 1997; Douglas and Young, 1998; Tanke and Currie, submitted.

SEX DIFFERENCES:

In Tyrannosaurus/tyrannosaurids: Fischman, 1993; Larson, 1994a, 1995.

SOFT TISSUE PRESERVATION:

Early Cretaceous small theropod dinosaurs: Kellner, 1996; Dal Sasso and Signore, 1998a, b.

Feathers: Davis and Briggs, 1995.

Keratin: Late Cretaceous Mononykus ?feathers and Cretaceous bird ungual: Schweitzer, 1998.

Late Cretaceous embryonic dinosaur: Horner, 1997.

Muscles: Lull and Wright, 1942 (hadrosaurs).

Skin: Lull and Wright, 1942; Monastersky, 1999a (hadrosaur); Czerkas, 1997 (sauropod); Chang, 1998 (titanosaur sauropod embryo); Anonymous, 1998g; Chiappe, 1998; Chiappe et al., 1998, 1999 (sauropod).

Unspeciated Late Cretaceous therizinosaur embryos: Cohen, Cruickshank, Joysey, Manning and Upchurch, 1995 (possible skin, muscle and cartilage preservation); Anonymous, 1998a (egg yolk and cartilage).

SPINA BIFIDA:

In: spina bifida occulta and spina bifida meningocele affecting distal caudal vertebrae (improperly developed neural arches and arch bases) of Upper Jurassic sauropod Camarasaurus: McIntosh, Miles, Cloward and Parker, 1996.

SPONDYLITIS DEFORMANS/SPONDYLOSIS:

:general discussion: Rothschild, 1997; Tanke and Rothschild, 1997.

:Diplodocus: Ackerknecht, 1953; McGinnis, 1982.

:Apatosaurus: McGinnis, 1982.

(These occurrences are actually DISH; see DIFFUSE IDIOPATHIC SKELETAL HYPEROSTOSIS entry above).

STARVATION: implicated in a specimen of the sauropod Mamenchisaurus due to absence of wear on the teeth: Russell and Zheng, 1993.

STROKE:

In: Barosaurus: Choy and Altman, 1993; Naeye, 1993.

STUDENTS (CURRENT/RECENT) OF DINOSAUR PALEOPATHOLOGY:

Hanna (nee Laws), R.: See Hanna and Laws entries.

Goldman, L.: Talbot, 1978.

Martin, L.D.: Wright, 1991.

Rothschild, B.M.: Monastersky, 1990; Wright, 1991; Torassa, 1997.

Tanke, D.H.: Monastersky, 1990; Rempel, 1990; Tanke, 1991; Wright, 1991; Westrup, 1992; Spalding, 1999.

Tumarkin, A.: See Tumarkin entry.

TAIL DRAGGING (Possibly related to pathology):

:ornithopod dinosaur trackway: Gillette and Thomas, 1985; Hunt and Lucas, 1998.

TENDONS (OSSIFIED):

:Australian ankylosaur Minmi: Molnar and Frey, 1987.

:Late Cretaceous hadrosaur Anatosaurus and ankylosaur Ankylosaurus: Moodie, 1928.

:general comments: Rothschild and Tanke, 1992.

:hadrosaurs: Lull and Wright, 1942.

THERMOPHYSIOLOGY:

:dinosaurs: Barrick, 1996.

:Late Cretaceous Tyrannosaurus rex: Barrick and Showers, 1994. [See annotation following Barrick and Showers entry for addition citations].

TOOTH/TEETH:

Cracks in enamel: Rensberger, 1987.

Damage to serrations: Tyrannosaurids: Schowalter, 1995a; Tanke and Currie, submitted.

Dental caries: absence of in dinosaurs: Rothschild and Tanke, 1992; Currie and Koppelhus, 1996; Tanke and Rothschild, 1997.

Double-cusped: Tyrannosaurus rex: Anonymous, 1991b.

Fractures of: Tyrannosaurids: Farlow and Brinkman, 1987, 1994; Farlow, Brinkman, Abler and Currie, 1991; Jacobsen, 1995a, b; Abler, 1997 (mention only); Tanke and Rothschild, 1997; Felber, Currie and Sovak, 1998; Mongelli, Varricchio and Borkowski, 1999; Tanke and Currie, submitted.

:Tyrannosaurus rex: Molnar, 1973; Carpenter, 1979; Lessem, 1988; Molnar, 1991 (premaxilla tooth).

:Saurornitholestes: Jacobsen, 1995a; Currie and Jacobsen, 1995.

:Allosaurus: Madsen, 1976a.

:unspeciated theropod, Early Jurassic, Antarctica: Hammer and Hickerson, 1993; Hammer, 1997.

:unspecified theropods (popular): Currie and Koppelhus, 1996.

Malformed: Late Cretaceous Tyrannosaurus tooth, shortened, “squashed serrated edge”, “sickly, blackish gray” coloration vs. “varnished brown” coloration of other normal teeth and bone in this specimen: Webster, 1999.

Malpositioning of: Aublysodon dentary tooth slanted posteriorly: Lehman and Carpenter, 1990.

:general comment: Tanke and Rothschild, 1997.

Pre- and postmortem cracking of enamel: Rensberger, 1987.

Presence of extra carinae (large theropods): Bohlin, 1953; Erickson, 1993a,b, 1995.

Presence of extra serrations on tyrannosaur tooth: Abler, 1997.

Toothmarking of: in tyrannosaurids: Abler, 1992; Jacobsen, 1995a; Schowalter, 1995a, b; Tanke and Currie, 1995; Douglas and Young, 1998.

Wear of:

Absences of heavy tooth wear or tooth fractures: Diplodocus Hay, 1908.

TOOTHMARKED BONE: Hammer and Hickerson, 1993; Jacobsen, 1995a, b; Currie and Jacobsen, 1995; Schowalter, 1995a; Erickson and Olsen, 1996; Erickson, Van Kirk, Su, Levenston, Caler and Carter, 1996; Tanke and Currie, 1995; Jacobsen, 1998; Tanke and Currie, submitted.

TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPE (TEM) STUDIES OF DINOSAUR BONE: Pawlicki, 1978a,b; see other entries under Pawlicki; Zocco and Schwartz, 1994.

TUBERCULOSIS:

In: “massive overgrowth” affecting an Upper Jurassic Allosaurus pedal phalanx attributed to possible case of tuberculosis or trauma: Petersen, Isakson and Madsen, 1972.

TUMORS:

In: unspeciated Late Cretaceous hadrosaur vertebrae: Norman and Milner, 1989.

:Late Cretaceous Romanian hadrosaur Orthomerus: Campbell, 1966; Swinton, 1970; Reid, R., 1984.

:Upper Jurassic Allosaurus humerus: Greenberg, 1992; Stadtman, 1992, Taylor, 1992; Wycombe, 1992; Stadtman, 1993; Tanke and Rothschild, 1997.

UNSPECIFIED PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS:

:affecting cervical and caudal vertebrae, femur and tibia of Chinese Upper Jurassic sauropod Mamenchisaurus hochuaensis: Anonymous, 1965.

VASCULAR IMPRESSIONS IN BONE: Saul and Saul, 1992, 1993 (both in Homo sapiens, but equally relevant to dinosaurs).

WEAPONRY IN DINOSAURS:

:horns in ceratopsians: Berghaus and Gabriel, 1988.

:tailclubs as weapons: Paul, 1988.

:tails as weapons: Paul, 1988 (Stegosaurus); McIntosh, Miles, Cloward and Parker, 1996 (sauropod Camarasaurus).

:teeth in Early Jurassic Heterodontosaurus useful for intraspecific fighting: Weishampel, 1992.

Diplodocus tail, unspeciated stegosaur and ankylosaur tails (and associated armor) as weapons: Gertsch, 1994.

:tail in sauropods; was it used as a “whip”?: Coombs, 1975; Christiansen, 1996b.

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